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TITLE II.

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 SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

General Rules and Division of the School of the Soldier.

 77. THE object of this school being the individual and progressive instruction of the recruits, the instructor never requires a movement to be executed until he has given an exact explanation of it; and he executes, himself, the movement which he commands, so as to join example to precept.  He accustoms the recruit to take, by himself, the position which is explained – teaches him to rectify it only when required by his want of intelligence – and sees that all the movements are performed without precipitation.

78. Each movement should be understood before passing to another.  After they have been properly executed in the order laid down in each lesson the instructor no longer confines himself to that order; on the contrary, he should change it, that he may judge of the intelligence of the men.

79. The instructor allows the men to rest at the end of each part of the lessons, and oftener, if he thinks proper, especially at the commencement; for this purpose he commands REST.

80. At the command REST, the soldier is no longer required to preserve immobility, or to remain in his place.  If the instructor wishes merely to relieve the attention of the recruit, he commands, in place—REST; the soldier is then not required to preserve his immobility, but he always keeps one of his feet in its place.

81. When the instructor wishes to commence the instruction, he commands – ATTENTION; at the command, the soldier takes his position, remains motionless, and fixes his attention.

82. The School of the Soldier will be divided into three parts: the first, comprehending what ought to be taught to recruits without arms; the second, the manual of arms, the loadings and firings; the third, the principles of alignment, the march by the front, the different steps, the march by the flank, the principles of wheeling, and those of change of direction; also, long marches in double quick time and the run.

83. Each part will be divided into lessons, as follows:

PART FIRST.

LESSON 1. Position of the soldier without arms: Eyes right, left and front.

LESSON 2. Facings.

LESSON 3. Principles of the direct step in common and quick time.

LESSON 4. Principles of the direct step in double quick time and the run.

PART SECOND.

LESSON 1. Principles of shouldered arms.

LESSON 2. Manual of arms.

LESSON 3. To load in four times, and at will.

LESSON 4. Firings, direct, oblique, by file, and by rank.

LESSON 5. To fire and load, kneeling and lying.

LESSON 6. Bayonet exercise.

PART THIRD.

LESSON 1. Union of eight or twelve men for instruction in the principles of alignment.

LESSON 2. The direct march, the oblique march, and the different steps.

LESSON 3. The march by the flank.

LESSON 4. Principles of wheeling and change of direction.

LESSON 5. Long marches and double quick time, and the run, with arms and knapsacks.

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PART FIRST.

84. This will be taught, if practicable, to one recruit at a time; but three or four may be united, when the number is great, compared with that of the instructors.  In this case, the recruits will be placed in a single rank, at one pace from each other.  In this part, the recruits will be without arms.

LESSON I.

POSITION OF A SOLDIER.

85. Heels on the same line, as near each other as the conformation of the man will permit:

The feet turned out equally, and forming with each other something less than a right angle;

The knees straight without stiffness;

The body erect on the hips, inclining a little forward;

The shoulders square and falling equally;

The arms hanging naturally;

The elbows near the body;

The palm of the hand turned a little to the front, the little finger behind the seam of the pantaloons;

The head erect and square to the front, without constraint;

The chin near the stock, without covering it;

The eyes fixed straight to the front, and striking the ground about the distance of fifteen paces.

REMARKS ON THE POSITION OF A SOLDIER.

Heels on the same line;

86. Because, if one were in rear of the other, the shoulder on that side would be thrown back, or the position of the soldier would be constrained.

Heels more or less closed;

Because men who are knock-kneed, or who have legs with large calves, cannot, without constraint, make their heels touch while standing.

The feet equally turned out, and not forming too large an angle;

Because, if one foot were turned out more than the other, a shoulder would be deranged, and if both feet be too much turned out, it would not be practicable to incline the upper part of the body, forward without rendering the whole position unsteady.

Knees extended without stiffness;

Because, if stiffened, constraint and fatigue would be unavoidable.

The body erect on the hips;

Because it gives equilibrium to the position.  The instructor will observe that many recruits have the bad habit of dropping a shoulder or drawing in a side, or of advancing a hip, particularly the right, when under arms.  These are defects he will labor to correct.

The upper part of the body inclining forward;

Because commonly, recruits are disposed to do the reverse, to project the belly, and to throw back the shoulders, when they wish to hold themselves erect, from which result great inconveniences in marching.  The habit of inclining forward the upper part of the body is so important to contract, that the instructor must enforce it at the beginning, particularly with recruits who have naturally the opposite habit.

Shoulders square;

Because; if the shoulders be advanced beyond the line of the breast, and the back arched (the defect called round-shouldered, not uncommon among recruits), the man cannot align himself, nor use his piece with address.  It is important, then, to correct this defect, and necessary to that end that the coat should set easy about the shoulders and arm-pits; but in correcting this defect, the instructor will take care that the shoulders be not thrown too much to the rear, which would cause the belly to project, and the small of the back to be curved.

The arms hanging naturally, elbows near the body, the palm of the hand a little turned to the front, the little finger behind the seam of the pantaloons;

Because these positions are equally important to the shoulder-arms, and to prevent the man from occupying more space in a rank than is necessary to a free use of the piece; they have, moreover, the advantage of keeping in the shoulders.

The face straight to the front, and without constraint;

Because, if there be stiffness in the latter position, it would communicate itself to the whole of the upper part of the body, embarrass its movements, and give pain and fatigue.

Eyes direct to the front;

Because this is the surest means of maintaining the shoulders in line – an essential object, to be insisted on and attained.

87. The instructor having given the recruit the position of the soldier without arms, will now teach him the turning of the head and eyes.  He will command:

1. Eyes—RIGHT.  2. FRONT.

88. At the word right, the recruit will turn the head gently, so as to bring the inner corner of the left eye in a line with the buttons of the coat, the eyes fixed on the line of the eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank.

89. At the second command, the head will resume the direct or habitual position.

90. The movement of Eyes—LEFT will be executed by inverse means.

91. The instructor will take particular care that the movement of the head does not derange the squareness of the shoulders, which will happen if the movement of the former be too sudden.

92. When the instructor shall wish the recruit to pass from the state of attention to that of ease, he will command:

REST.

93. To cause a resumption of the habitual position the instructor will command:

1. Attention.  2. SQUAD.

94. At the first word, the recruit will fix his attention; at the second, he will resume the prescribed position and steadiness.

LESSON II.

FACINGS. 

95. Facing to the right and left will be executed in one time, or pause.  The instructor will command:

1. Squad.  2. Right (or left)—FACE.

96. At the second command, raise the right foot slightly, turn on the left heel, raising the toes a little, and then replace the right heel by the side of the left, and on the same line.

97. The full face to the rear (or front) will be executed in two times, or pauses.  The instructor will command.

1. Squad.  2. ABOUT—FACE.

98. (First time.)  At the word about, the recruit will turn on the left heel, bring the left toe to the front, carry the right foot to the rear, the hollow opposite to, and full three inches from, the left heel, the feet square to each other.

99. (Second time.)  At the word face, the recruit will turn on both heels, raise the toes a little, extend the hams, face to the rear, bringing, at the same time, the right heel by the side of the left.

100. The instructor will take care that these motions do not derange the position of the body.

LESSON III.

PRINCIPLES OF THE DIRECT STEP.

101. The length of the direct step, or pace, in common time, will be twenty-eight inches, reckoning from heel to heel, and in swiftness, at the rate of ninety in a minute.

102. The instructor, seeing the recruit confirmed in his position, will explain to him the principle and mechanism of this step-placing himself six or seven paces from, and facing to, the recruit.  He will himself execute slowly the step in the way of illustration, and then command:

1. Squad, forward.  2. Common time.  3. MARCH.

103. At the first command, the recruit will throw the weight of the body, on the right leg, without bending the left knee.

104. At the third command, he will smartly, but without a jerk, carry straight forward the left foot twenty-eight inches from the right, the sole near the ground, the ham extended, the too a little depressed, and, as also the knee, slightly turned out; he will, at the same time, throw the weight of the body forward, and plant flat the left foot, without shock, precisely at the distance where it finds itself from the right when the weight of the body is brought forward, the whole of which will now rest on the advanced foot.  The recruit will next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above, the heel twenty-eight inches from the heel of the left foot, and thus continue to march without crossing the legs, or striking the one against the other, without turning the shoulders, and preserving always the face direct to the front.

105. When the instructor shall wish to arrest the march, he will command:

1. Squad.  2. HALT.

106. At the second command, which will be given at the instant when either foot is coming to the ground, the foot in the rear will be brought up, and planted by the side of the other, without shock.

107. The instructor will indicate, from time to time, to the recruit, the cadence of the step by giving the command one at the instant of raising a foot, and two at the instant it ought to be planted, observing the cadence of ninety steps in a minute.  This method will contribute greatly to impress upon the mind the two motions into which the step is naturally divided.

108. Common time will be employed only in the first and second parts of the School for the Soldier.  As soon as the recruit has acquired steadiness, has become established in the principles of shouldered arms, and in the mechanism length and swiftness of the step in common time, he will be practised only in quick time, the double quick time, and the run.

109. The principles of the step in quick time are the same as for common time, but its swiftness is at the rate of one hundred and ten steps per minute.

110. The instructor wishing the squad to march in quick time, will command:

1. Squad, forward.  2. MARCH

LESSON IV.

PRINCIPLES OF THE DOUBLE QUICK STEP.

111. The length of the double quick step is thirty-three inches, and its swiftness at the rate of one hundred and sixty-five steps per minute.

112. The instructor wishing to teach the recruits the principles and mechanism of the double quick step, will command:

1. Double quick step.  2. MARCH.

113. At the first command the recruit will raise his hands to a level with his hips, the hands closed, the nails toward the body, the elbows to the rear.

114. At the second command, he will raise to the front his left leg bent, in order to give to the knee the greatest elevation, the part of the leg between the knee and the instep vertical, the toe depressed; he will then replace his foot in its former position; with the right leg he will execute what has just been prescribed for the left, and the alternate movement of the legs will be continued until the command:

1. Squad.  2. HALT.

115. At the second command, the recruit will bring the foot which is raised by the side of the other, and dropping at the same time his hands by his side, will resume the position of the soldier without arms.

116. The instructor placing himself seven or eight paces from, and facing the recruit, will indicate the cadence by the commands one and two, given alternately at the instant each foot should be brought to the ground, which at first will be in common time, but its rapidity will be gradually augmented.

117. The recruit being sufficiently established in the principles of this step, the instructor will command:

1. Squad, forward.  2. Double quick.  3. MARCH.

118. At the first command, the recruit will throw the weight of his body on the right leg.

119. At the second command he will place his arms as indicated No. 113.

120. At the third command, he will carry forward the left foot, the leg slightly bent, the knee somewhat raised – will plant his left foot, the toe first, thirty-three inches from the right, and with the right foot will then execute what has just been prescribed for the left.  This alternate movement of the legs will take place by throwing the weight of the body on the foot that is planted, and by allowing a natural, oscillatory motion to the arms.

121. The double quick step may be executed with different degrees of swiftness.  Under urgent circumstances the cadence of this step may be increased to one hundred and eighty per minute.  At this rate a distance of four thousand yards would be passed over in about twenty-five minutes.

122. The recruits will be exercised also in running.

123. The principles are the same as for the double quick step, the only difference consisting in a greater degree of swiftness.

124. It is recommended in marching at double quick time, or the run, that the men should breathe as much as possible through the nose, keeping the mouth closed.  Experience has proved that, by conforming to this principle, a man can pass over a much longer distance, and with less fatigue.

PART SECOND.

GENERAL RULES.

125. The instructor will not pass the men to this second part until they shall be well established in the position of the body, and in the manner of marching at the different steps.

126. He will then unite four men, whom be will place in the same rank, elbow to elbow, and instruct them in the position of shouldered arms, as follows:

LESSON I.

PRINCIPLES OF SHOULDERED ARMS.

127. The recruit being placed as explained in the first lesson of the first part, the instructor will cause him to bend the right arm slightly, and place the piece in it, in the following manner.

128. The piece in the right hand – the barrel nearly vertical and resting in the hollow of the shoulder – the guard to the front, the arm hanging nearly at its full length near the body; the thumb and fore-finger embracing the guard, the remaining fingers closed together, and grasping the swell of the stock just under the cock, which rests on the little finger.

129. Recruits are frequently seen with natural defects in the conformation of the shoulders, breast and hips.  These the instructor will labor to correct in the lessons without arms, and afterwards, by steady endeavors, so that the appearance of the pieces, in the same line, may be uniform, and this without constraint to the men in their positions.

130. The instructor will have occasion to remark that recruits, on first bearing arms, are liable to derange their position by lowering the right shoulder and the right hand, or by sinking the hip and spreading out the elbows.

131. He will be careful to correct all these faults by continually rectifying the position; he will sometimes take away the piece to replace it the better; he will avoid fatiguing the recruits too much in the beginning, but labor by degrees to render this position so natural and easy that they may remain in it a long time without fatigue.

132. Finally, the instructor will take great care that the piece, at a shoulder, be not carried too high nor too low: if too high, the right elbow would spread out, the soldier would occupy too much space in his rank, and the piece be made to waver; if too low, the files would be too much closed, the soldier would not have the necessary space to handle his piece with facility, the right arm would become too much fatigued, and would draw down the shoulder.

133. The instructor, before passing to the second lesson, will cause to be repeated the movements of eyes right, left, and front, and the facings.

LESSON II.

MANUAL OF ARMS.

134. The manual of arms will be taught to four men, placed, at first, in one rank, elbow to elbow, and afterwards in two ranks.

135. Each command will be executed in one time (or pause), but this time will be divided into motions) the better to make known the mechanism.

136. The rate (or swiftness) of each motion, in the manual of arms, with the exceptions herein indicated, is fixed at the ninetieth part of a minute, but, in order not to fatigue, the attention, the instructor will, at first, look more particularly to the execution of the motions, without requiring a nice observance of the cadence, to which he will bring the recruits progressively, and after they shall have become a little familiarized with the handling of the piece.

137. As the motions relative to the cartridge, to the rammer, and to the fixing and unfixing of the bayonet, cannot be executed at the rate prescribed, nor even with a uniform swiftness, they will not be subjected to that cadence.  The instructor will, however, labor to cause these motions to be executed with promptness, and, above all, with regularity.

138. The last syllable of the command will decide the brisk execution of the first motion of each time (or pause).  The commands two, three, and four, will decide the brisk execution of the other motions.  As soon as the recruits shall well comprehend the positions of the several motions of a time, they will be taught to execute the time without resting on its different motions; the mechanism of the time will nevertheless be observed, as well to give a perfect use of the piece, as to avoid the sinking of, or slurring over, either of the motions.

139. The manual of arms will be taught in the following progression; the instructor will command:

Support—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

140. (First motion.)  Bring the piece, with the right hand, perpendicularly to the front and between the eyes, the barrel to the rear; seize the piece with the left hand at the lower band, raise this hand as high as the chin, and seize the piece at the same time with the right hand four inches below the cock.

141. (Second motion.)  Turn the piece with the right hand, the barrel to the front; carry the piece to the left shoulder, and pass the fore-arm extended on the breast between the right hand and the cock; support the cock against the left fore-arm, the left hand resting on the right breast.

142. (Third motion.)  Drop the right hand by the side.

143. When the instructor may wish to give repose in this position, he will command:

REST.

144. At this command, the recruits will bring up smartly the right hand to the handle of the piece (small of the stock), when they will not be required to preserve silence, or steadiness of position.

145. When the instructor may wish the recruits to pass from this position to that of silence and steadiness, he will command:

1. Attention.  2. SQUAD.

146. At the second word, the recruits will resume the position of the third motion of support arms.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

147. (First motion.)  Grasp the piece with the right hand under and against the left fore-arm; seize it with the left hand at the lower band, the thumb extended; detach the piece slightly from the shoulder, the left fore-arm along the stock.

148. (Second motion.)  Carry the piece vertically to the right shoulder with both hands, the rammer to the front, change the position of the right hand so as to embrace the guard with the thumb and fore-finger, slip the left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended and joined, the right arm nearly straight.

149. (Third motion.)  Drop the left hand quickly by the side.

Present—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

150. (First motion.)  With the right hand, bring the piece erect before the centre of the body, the rammer to the front; at the same time seize the piece with the left hand half-way between the guide sight and lower band, the thumb extended along the barrel and against the stock, the forearm horizontal and resting against the body, the hand as high as the elbow.

151. (Second motion.)  Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand, below and against the guard.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

152. (First motion.)  Bring the piece to the right shoulder, at the same time change, the position of the right hand so as to embrace the guard with the thumb and fore-finger, slip up the left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended and joined, the right arm nearly straight.

153. (Second motion.)  Drop the left hand quickly by the side.

Order—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

154. (First motion.)  Seize the piece briskly with the left hand near the upper band, and detach it slightly from the shoulder with the right hand: loosen the grasp of the right hand, lower the piece with the left, reseize the piece with the right hand above the lower band, the little finger in the rear of the barrel, the butt about four inches from the ground, the right hand supported against the hip, drop the left hand by the side.  If the rifle musket is used, the piece will be seized by the left hand a little above the middle band, and it will be seized by the right hand, just above the lower band.

155. (Second motion.)  Let the piece slip through the right hand to the ground by opening slightly the fingers, and take the position about to be described.

POSITION OF ORDER ARMS.

156. The hand low, the barrel between the thumb and fore-finger extended along the stock; the other fingers extended and joined; the muzzle about two inches from the right shoulder; the rammer in front; the toe (or beak) of the butt, against, and in a line with, the toe of the right foot, the barrel perpendicular.

157. When the instructor may wish to give repose in this position, he will command:

REST.

158. At this command, the recruits will not be required to preserve silence or steadiness.

159. When the instructor may wish the recruits to pass from this position to that of silence and steadiness, he will command:

1. Attention.  2. SQUAD.

160. At the second word, the recruits will resume the position of order arms.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

161. (First motion.)  Raise the piece vertically with the right hand to the height of the right breast, and opposite the shoulder, the elbow close to the body; seize the piece with the left hand below the right, and drop quickly the right hand to grasp the piece at the swell of the stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing the guard; press the piece against the shoulder with the left hand, the right arm nearly straight.

162. (Second motion.)  Drop the left hand quickly by the side.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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