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INSPECTION OF ARMS.

235. The recruits being at ordered arms, and having the bayonet in the scabbard, if the instructor wishes to cause an inspection of arms, he will command:

Inspection—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

236. (First motion.)  Seize the piece with the left hand below and near the upper band, carry it with both bands opposite the middle of the body, the butt between the feet, the rammer to the rear, the barrel vertical, the muzzle about three inches from the body; (should the rifle musket be used, the muzzle will be about eight inches from the body); carry the left hand reversed to the bayonet, draw it from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel; grasp the piece with the left band below and near the upper band, seize the rammer with the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand bent, the other fingers closed.

237. (Second motion.)  Draw the rammer as has been explained in loading, and let it glide to the bottom of the bore, replace the piece with the left hand opposite the right shoulder, and retake the position of ordered arms.

238. The instructor will then inspect in succession the piece of each recruit, in passing along the front of the rank.  Each, as the instructor reaches him, will raise smartly his piece with his right hand, seize it with the left between the lower band and guide sight, the lock to the front, the left hand at the height of the chin, the piece opposite to the left eye; the instructor will take it with the right hand at the handle and, after inspecting it, will return it to the recruit, who will receive it back with the right hand, and replace it in the position of ordered arms.

239. When the instructor shall have passed him, each recruit will retake the position prescribed at the command inspection, return the rammer, unfix the bayonet, and resume the position of ordered arms.

240. If, instead of inspection of arms, the instructor should merely wish to cause bayonets to be fixed, he will command:

Fix—BAYONET.

241. Take the position indicated No. 236, fix bayonets as has been explained, and immediately resume the position of ordered arms.

242. If it be the wish of the instructor, after firing, to ascertain whether the pieces have been discharged, he will command:

Spring—RAMMERS.

243. Put the rammer in the barrel, as has been explained above, and immediately retake the position of ordered arms.

244. The instructor, for the purpose stated, can take the rammer by the small end, and spring it in the barrel, or cause each recruit to make it ring in the barrel.

245. Each recruit, after the instructor passes him, will return rammer, and resume the position of ordered arms.

REMARKS ON THE MANUAL OF ARMS.

246. The manual of arms frequently distorts the persons of recruits before they acquire ease and confidence in the several positions.  The instructor will therefore frequently recur to elementary principles in the course of the lessons.

247. Recruits are also extremely liable to curve the sides and back, and to derange the shoulders, especially in loading.  Consequently, the instructor will not cause them to dwell too long at a time in one position.

248. When, after some days of exercise in the manual of arms, the four men shall be well established in their use, the instructor will always terminate the lesson by marching the men for some time in one rank, and at one pace apart, in common and quick time, in order to confirm them more and more in the mechanism of the step; he will also teach them to mark time, and to change step, which will be executed in the following manner:

TO MARK TIME.

249. The four men marching in the direct step, the instructor will command:

1. Mark time.  2. MARCH.

250. At the second command, which will be given at the instant a foot is coming to the ground, the recruits will make a semblance of marching, by bringing the heels by the side of each other, and observing the cadence of the step, by raising each foot alternately without advancing.

251. The instructor wishing the direct step to be resumed, will command:

1. Forward.  2. MARCH.

252. At the second command, which will be given as prescribed above, the recruits will retake the step of twenty-eight inches.

TO CHANGE STEP.

253. The squad being in march, the instructor will command:

1. Change step.  2. MARCH.

254. At the second command, which will be given at the instant either foot is coming to the ground, bring the foot which is in rear by the side of that which is in front, and step off again with the foot which was in front.

TO MARCH BACKWARD.

255. The instructor wishing the squad to march backward, will command:

1. Squad backward.  2. MARCH.

256. At the second command, the recruits will step off smartly with the left foot fourteen inches to the rear, reckoning from heel to heel, and so with the feet in succession till the command halt, which will always be preceded by the caution squad.  The men will halt at this command, and bring back the foot in front by the side of the other.

257. This step will always be executed in quick time.

258. The instructor will be watchful that the recruits march straight to the rear, and that the erect position of the body and the piece be not deranged.

LESSON III.

TO LOAD IN FOUR TIMES.

259. The object of this lesson is to prepare the recruits to load at will, and to cause them to distinguish the times which require the greatest regularity and attention, such as charge cartridge, ram cartridge, and prime.  It will be divided as follows:

260. The first time will be executed at the end of the command; the three others at the commands, two, three and four.  The instructor will command:

1. Load in four times.  2. LOAD.

261. Execute the times to include charge cartridge.

TWO.

262. Execute the times to include ram cartridge.

THREE.

263. Execute the times to include prime.

FOUR.

264. Execute the time of shoulder arms.

TO LOAD AT WILL.

265. The instructor will next teach loading at will, which will be executed as loading in four times, but continued, and without resting on either of the times.  He will command:

1. Load at will.  2. LOAD.

266. The instructor will habituate the recruits, by degrees, to load with the greatest possible promptitude, each without regulating himself by his neighbor, and above all without waiting for him.

267. The cadence prescribed No. 136, is not applicable to loading in four times, or at will.

LESSON IV.

FIRINGS.

268. The firings are direct or oblique, and will be executed as follows:

THE DIRECT FIRE.

269. The instructor will give the following commands:

1. Fire by Squad.  2. Squad.  3. READY.  4. AIM.  5. FIRE.  6. LOAD.

270. These several commands will be executed as has been prescribed in the Manual of Arms.  At the third command, the men will come to the position of ready, as heretofore explained.  At the fourth they will aim according to the rank in which each may find himself placed, the rearwards men inclining forward a little the upper part of the body, in order that their pieces may reach as much beyond the front-rank as possible.

271. At the sixth command, they will load their pieces and return immediately to the position of ready.

272. The instructor will recommence the firing by the commands:

1. Squad.  2. AIM.  3. FIRE.  4. LOAD.

273. When the instructor wishes the firing to cease he will command:

Cease—FIRING.

274. At this command the men will cease firing, but will load their pieces if unloaded, and afterward bring them to a shoulder.

OBLIQUE FIRINGS.

275. The oblique firings will be executed to the right and left, and by the same commands as the direct fire, with this single difference – the command aim will always be preceded by the caution, right or left oblique.

POSITION OF THE TWO RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO THE RIGHT.

276. At the command ready, the two ranks will execute what has been prescribed for the direct fire.

277. At the cautionary command, right oblique, the two ranks will throw back the right shoulder, and look steadily at the object to be hit.

278. At the command aim, each front-rank man will aim to the right without deranging the feet; each rear-rank man will advance the left foot about eight inches toward the right heel of the man next on the right of his file leader, and aim to the right, inclining the upper part of the body forward, and bending a little the left knee.

POSITION OF THE TWO RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO THE LEFT.

279. At the cautionary command left oblique, the two ranks will throw back the left shoulder, and look steadily at the object to be hit.

280. At the command aim, the front-rank will take aim to the left without deranging the feet; each man in the rear-rank will advance the right foot, about eight inches toward the right heel of the man next on the right of his file leader, and aim to the left, inclining the upper part of the body forward, and bending a little the right knee.

281. In both cases, at the command load, the men of each rank will come to the position of load as prescribed in the direct fire; the rear-rank men bringing back the foot which is to the right and front by the side of the other.  Each man will continue to load as if isolated.

TO FIRE BY FILE.

282. The fire by file will be executed by the two ranks, the files of which will fire successively, and without regulating on each other, except for the first fire.

283. The instructor will command:

1. Fire by file.  2. Squad.  3. READY.  4. COMMENCE FIRING.

284. At the third command, the two ranks will take the position prescribed in the direct fire.

285. At the fourth command, the file on the right will aim and fire; the rear-rank man in aiming will take the position indicated No. 183.

286. The men of this file will load their pieces briskly and fire a second time; reload and fire again, and so on in continuation.

287. The second file will aim, at the instant the first brings down pieces to reload, and will conform in all respects to that which has just been prescribed for the first file.

288. After the first fire, the front and rear-rank men will not be required to fire at the same time.

289. Each man, after loading, will return to the position of ready and continue the fire.

290. When the instructor wishes the fire to cease, he will command:

Cease—FIRING.

291. At this command, the men will cease firing.  If they have fired, they will load their pieces and bring them to a shoulder; if at the position of ready, they will half-cock and shoulder arms.  If in the position of aim, they will bring down their pieces, half-cock, and shoulder arms.

TO FIRE BY RANK.

292. The fire by rank will be executed by each entire rank, alternately.

293. The instructor will command:

1. Fire by rank.  2. Squad.  3. READY.  4. Rear rank.  5. AIM.  6. FIRE.  7. LOAD.

294. At the third command, the two ranks will take the position of ready, as prescribed in the direct fire.

295. At the seventh command, the rear-rank will execute that which has been prescribed in the direct fire, and afterward take the position of ready.

296. As soon as the instructor sees several men of the rear-rank in the position of ready, he will command:

1. Front rank.  2. AIM.  3. FIRE.  4. LOAD.

297. At these commands, the men in the front-rank will execute what has been prescribed for the rear-rank, but they will not step off with the right foot.

298. The instructor will recommence the firing by the rear-rank, and will thus continue to alternate from rank to rank, until he shall wish the firing to cease, when he will command, cease firing which will be executed as heretofore prescribed.

LESSON V.

TO FIRE AND LOAD KNEELING.

299. In this exercise, the squad will be supposed loaded and drawn up in one rank.  The instruction will be given to each man individually, without times or motions, and in the following manner:

300. The instructor will command:

FIRE AND LOAD KNEELING.

301. At this command, the man on the right of the squad will move forward three paces and halt; then carry the right foot to the rear and to the right of the left heel, and in a position convenient for placing the right knee upon the ground in bending the left leg: place the right knee upon the ground; lower the piece, the left fore-arm supported upon the thigh on the same side, the right hand on the small of the stock, the butt resting on the right thigh, the left hand supporting the piece near the lower band.

302. He will next move the right leg to the left around the knee, supported on the ground, until this leg is nearly perpendicular to the direction of the left foot, and thus seat himself comfortably on the right heel.

303. Raise the piece with the right hand and support it with the left, holding it near the lower band, the left elbow resting on the left thigh near the knee; seize the hammer with the thumb, the fore-finger under the guard, cock and seize the piece at the small of the stock; bring the piece to the shoulder, aim and fire.

304. Bring the piece down as soon as it is fired, and support it with the left hand, the butt resting against the right thigh; carry the piece to the rear rising on the knee, the barrel downward, the butt resting on the ground; in this position support the piece with the left hand at the upper band, draw cartridge with the right and load the piece, ramming the ball, if necessary, with both hands.

305. When loaded bring the piece to the front with the left hand, which holds it at the upper band; seize it at the same time with the right hand at the small of the stock; turn the piece, the barrel uppermost and nearly horizontal, the left elbow resting on the left thigh; half cock, remove the old cap and prime, rise, and return to the ranks.

306. The second man will then be taught what has just been prescribed for the first, and so on through the remainder of the squad.

TO FIRE AND LOAD LYING.

307. In this exercise the squad will be in one rank and loaded; the instruction will be given individually and without times or motions.

308. The instructor will command:

FIRE AND LOAD LYING.

309. At this command, the man on the right of the squad will move forward three paces and halt; he will then bring his piece to an order, drop on both knees, and place himself on the ground flat on his belly.  In this position he will support the piece nearly horizontal with the left hand, holding it near the lower band, the butt end of the piece and the left elbow resting on the ground, the barrel uppermost; cock the piece with the right hand, and carry this hand to the small of the stock; raise the piece with both hands, press the butt against the shoulder, and, resting on both elbows, aim and fire.

310. As soon as he has fired, bring the piece down and turn upon his left side, still resting on his left elbow; bring back the piece until the cock is opposite his breast, the butt end resting on the ground; take out a cartridge with the right hand; seize the small of the stock with this hand, holding the cartridge with the thumb and two first fingers; he will then throw himself on his back, still holding the piece with both hands carry the piece to the rear, place the butt between the heels, the barrel up, the muzzle elevated.  In this position, charge cartridge, draw rammer, ram cartridge, and return rammer.

311. When finished loading, the man will turn again upon his left side, remove the old cap and prime, then raise the piece vertically, rise, turn about, and resume his position in the ranks.

312. The second man will be taught what has just been prescribed for the first, and so on throughout the squad.

LESSON VI.

BAYONET EXERCISE.

313. The bayonet exercise in this book will be confined to two movements, the guard against infantry, and the guard against cavalry.  The men will be placed in one rank, with two paces interval, and, being at shoulder arms, the instructor will command:

1. Guard against Infantry.  2. GUARD.

One time and two motions.

314.  (First motion.)  Make a half face to the right, turning on both heels, the feet square to each other; at the same time raise the piece slightly, and seize it with the left hand above and near the lower band.

315. (Second motion.)  Carry the right foot twenty inches perpendicularly to the rear, the right heel on the prolongation of the left, the knees slightly bent, the weight of the body resting equally on both legs; lower the piece with both hands, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow against the body; seize the piece at the same time with the right hand at the small of the stock, the arms falling naturally, the point of the bayonet slightly elevated.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

316. Throw up the piece with the left hand, and place it against the right shoulder, at the same time bring the right heel by the side of the left and face to the front.

1. Guard against Cavalry.  2. GUARD.

One time and two motions.

317. Both motions the same as for guard against infantry except that the right hand will be supported against the hip, and the bayonet held at the height of the eye, as in charge bayonet.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

318. Spring up the piece with the left hand and place it against the right shoulder, at the same time bring the right heel by the side of the left, and face to the front.

PART THIRD.

319. When the recruits are well established in the principles and mechanism of the step, the position of the body, and the manual of arms, the instructor will unite eight men, at least, and twelve men at most, in order to teach them the principles of alignment, the principles of the touch of elbows in marching to the front, the principles of the march by the flank, wheeling from a halt, wheeling in marching, and the change of direction to the side of the guide.  He will place the squad in one rank, elbow to elbow, and number the men from right to left.

LESSON I.

ALIGNMENTS.

320. The instructor will at first teach the recruits to align themselves, man by man, in order the better to make them comprehend the principles of alignment; to this end, he will command the two men on the right flank to march two paces to the front, and having aligned them, be will caution the remainder of the squad to move up, as they may be successively called, each by his number, and align themselves successively or the line of the first two men.

321. Each recruit, as designated by his number will turn the head and eyes to the right, as prescribed in the first lesson of the first part, and will march in quick time two paces forward, shortening the last, so as to find himself about six inches behind the new alignment, which he ought never to pass: he will next move up steadily by steps of two or three inches, the hams extended, to the side of the man next to him on the alignment, so that, without deranging the head, the line of the eyes, or that of the shoulders, he may find himself in the exact line of his neighbor, whose elbow he will lightly touch without opening his own.

322. The instructor seeing the rank well aligned, will command:

FRONT.

323. At this, the recruits will turn eyes to the front, and remain firm.

324. Alignments to the left will be executed on the same principles.

325. When the recruits shall have thus learned to align themselves, man by man, correctly, and without groping or jostling, the instructor will cause the entire rank to align itself at once by the command:

Right (or left)—DRESS.

326. At this the rank, except the two men placed in advance as a basis of alignment will move up in quick time and place themselves on the new line, according to the principles prescribed No. 321.

327. The instructor, placed five or six paces in front, and facing the rank, will carefully observe that the principles are followed, and then pass to the flank that has served as a basis to verify the alignment.

328. The instructor, seeing the greater number of the rank aligned, will command:

FRONT.

329. The instructor may afterward order this or that file forward or back, designating each by its number.  The file or files designated, only, will slightly turn the head toward the basis, to judge how much they ought to move up or back, steadily place themselves on the line, and then turn eyes to the front, without a particular command to that effect.

330. Alignments to the rear will be executed on the same principles, the recruits stepping back a little beyond the line, and then dressing up according to the principles prescribed No. 321 the instructor commanding:

Right (or left) backward—DRESS.

331. After each alignment, the instructor will examine the position of the men, and cause the rank to come to ordered arms, to prevent too much fatigue, and also the danger of negligence at shouldered arms.

LESSON II.

332. The men having learned, in the first and second parts to march with steadiness in common time, and to take steps equal in length and swiftness, will be exercised in the third part only in quick time, double quick time, and the run; the instructor will cause them to execute successively, at these different gaits, the march to the front, the facing about in marching, the march by the flank, the wheels at a halt and in marching, and the changes of direction to the side of the guide.

333. The instructor will inform the recruits that at the command march, they will always move off in quick time, unless this command should be preceded by that of double quick.

TO MARCH TO THE FRONT.

334. The rank being correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march by the front, he will place a well instructed man on the right or the left, according to the side on which he may wish the guide to be, and command:

1. Squad, forward.  2. Guide right (or left).  3. MARCH.

335. At the command march, the rank will step off smartly with the left foot; the guide will take care to march straight to the front, keeping his shoulders always in a square with that line.

336. The instructor will observe, in marching to the front, that the men touch lightly the elbow toward the side of the guide; that they do not open out the left elbow, nor the right arm; that they yield to pressure coming from the side of the guide, and resist that coining from the opposite side; that they recover by insensible degrees, the slight touch of the elbow, if lost; that they maintain the head direct to the front, no matter on which side the guide may be; and if found before or behind the alignment, that the man in fault corrects himself by shortening or lengthening the step, by degrees, almost insensible.

337. The instructor will labor to cause recruits to comprehend that the alignment can only be preserved, in marching, by the regularity of the step, the touch of the elbow, and the maintenance of the shoulders in a square with the line of direction: that if, for example, the step of some be longer than that of others, or if some march faster than others, a separation of elbows, and a loss of the alignment, would be inevitable; that if (it being required that the head should be direct to the front) they do not strictly observe the touch of elbows, it would be impossible for an individual to judge whether he marches abreast with his neighbor, or not, and whether there be not an interval between them.

338. The impulsion of the quick step having a tendency to make men too easy and free in their movements, the instructor will be careful to regulate the cadence of this step, and to habituate them to preserve always the erectness of the body, and the due length of the pace.

339. The men being well established in the principles of the direct march, the instructor will exercise them in marching obliquely.  The rank being in march, the instructor will command:

1. Right (or left) oblique.  2. MARCH.

340. At the second command, each man will make a half face to the right (or left), and will then march straight-forward in the new direction.  As the men no longer touch elbows, they will glance along the shoulders of the nearest files, toward the side to which they are obliquing, and will regulate their steps so that the shoulder shall always be behind that of their next neighbor on that side, and that his head shall conceal the heads of the other men in the rank.  Besides this, the men should preserve the same length of pace, and the same degree of obliquity.

341. The instructor wishing to resume the primitive direction, will command:

1. Forward.  2. MARCH.

342. At the second command, each man will make a half face to the left (or right), and all will then march straight to the front, conforming to the principles of the direct march.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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