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328. At the command march, the captain of the eighth company will halt his company and align it by the left; the file closers will close one pace upon the rear rank.

329. The captains of the other companies, at the same command, will place themselves on the flank of the column; the subdivisions will face about, the guides remaining in the front rank, now become the rear, and as each arrives at platoon distance from the company immediately preceding it, its chief will face it to the front and halt it as prescribed No. 321.  The instant each company halts, the guide on the directing flank, remaining faced to the rear, will quickly place himself on the direction of the guides already established.  After which, the captain will align the company by the left, and the file closers will close one pace upon the rear rank.

0-330. At the command march, the chief of the first platoon of the second platoon column will halt his platoon and align it to the left; the chief of the second platoon will close his platoon in mass upon the first; the chiefs of platoons of the first platoon column will place themselves on the flank of the platoons; the platoons will face about, and execute what is prescribed No. 322.

331. The lieutenant-colonel will follow the movement abreast of the first company.  The senior major will place himself a few paces in rear of the guide of the eighth company, and will assure successively the position of the other guides.  The junior major will keep the position prescribed No. 305.

REMARKS.

332. A column by division at full distance will close to half distance by the same means and the same commands.

333. A column, by company, or by division, being at full or half distance, the colonel will cause it to close in mass by the same means and commands, substituting the indication, column, close in mass, for that of to half distance close column.  Each chief of subdivision will conform himself to all that has just been prescribed, except that he will not halt his subdivision till its guide shall be at a distance of six paces from the guide of the subdivision next preceding.

334. In a column, left in front, these various movements will be executed on the same principles.

ARTICLE VI.

To march in column at half distance, or closed in mass.

335. A column at half distance or in mass being at a halt, the colonel will put it in march by the commands prescribed for a column at full distance.

336. The means of direction will also be the same for a column at half distance, or in mass, as for a column at full distance.  If the column is in mass, the junior major will occupy the position prescribed No. 259.

337. A column at half distance or in mass, being in march, when the colonel shall wish to halt it, he will give the commands prescribed for halting a column at full distance, and if, afterward, he judge it necessary to give a general direction to the guides of the column, he will employ, to this end, the commands and means indicated, No. 290 and following.

338. In columns at half distance or closed in mass, chiefs of subdivision will repeat the commands march and halt, as in columns at full distance.

339. The colonel will often march the column to the rear, by the means and the commands prescribed Nos. 225 and 226.

340. A column by division or company, whether at full or half distance or closed in mass, at a halt or marching, can be faced to the right or left, and marched off in the new direction.

341. If in the case above indicated the companies of skirmishers are present, the platoon columns as also the battalion column will be directed as prescribed Nos. 140, 141 and 142.

REMARKS.

0-342. When one or more platoons of the companies of skirmishers are deployed, to cover a battalion while in column by company or division at half distance, and the colonel desires their recall, but not with a view to forming square, it will be executed as prescribed No. 95; observing what follows, the platoon columns on reaching their positions will be closed in mass, instead of keeping their full distances.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

ARTICLE VII.

To change direction in column at half distance.

343. A column at half distance, being in march, will change direction by the same commands and according to the same principles as a column at full distance; but as the distance between the subdivisions is less, the pivot man in each subdivision will take steps of fourteen inches instead of nine, and of seventeen inches instead of eleven, according to the gait, in order to clear, in time, the wheeling point, and the marching flank will describe the arc of a larger circle, the better to facilitate the movement.

0-344. At the command march by the colonel, the platoon columns of the companies of skirmishers, will change direction according to the principles prescribed No. 279 and following:

ARTICLE VIII.

To change direction in column closed in mass.

1st.  To change direction in marching.

345. A column by division, closed in mass, being in march, will change direction by the front of subdivisions.

346. Whether the change be made to the reverse, or to the pivot flank, it will always be executed on the principle of wheeling in marching; to this end, the colonel will first cause the battalion to take the guide on the flank opposite to the intended change of direction, if it be not already on that flank.

347. A column by division, closed in mass, right in front, having to change direction to the right, the colonel, after having caused a marker to be placed at the point where the change ought to commence, will command:

1. Battalion, right wheel.  2. MARCH.

348. At the command march, the leading division will wheel as if it were part of a column at half distance.

349. The instant that this division commences the wheel, all the others will, at once, conform themselves to its movement; to this end the left guide of each, advancing slightly the left shoulder; and lengthening a little the step, will incline to the left, and will observe, at the same time, to gain so much ground to the front that there may constantly be an interval of four paces between his division and that which precedes it; and as soon as he shall cover the preceding guide, he will cease to incline and then march exactly in his trace.

350. Each division will conform itself to the movement of its guide; the men will feel lightly the elbow toward him and advance a little the left shoulder the instant the movement commences; each file, in inclining, will gain so much the less ground to the front as the file shall be nearer to the pivot, and the right guide will gain only so much as may be necessary to maintain between his own and the preceding division the same distance which separates their marching flanks.

351. Each chief of division, turning to it, win regulate its march, and see that it remains constantly included between its guides, that its alignment continues nearly parallel to that of the preceding division, and that the centre bends only a little to the rear.

352. The colonel will superintend the movement, and cause the pivot of the leading division to lengthen or to shorten the step, conforming to the principle established in the S. C., No. 232 – if either be necessary to facilitate the movement of the other divisions.

353. The lieutenant-colonel, placed near the left guide of the leading division, will regulate his march, and take care, above all, that he does not throw himself within the arc he ought to describe.

354. The senior major, placed in the rear of the guides, will see that the last three conform themselves, each by slight degrees, to the movement of the guide immediately preceding, and that neither inclines too much in the endeavor to cover too promptly the guide in his front; he will rectify any serious fault that may be committed in either of those particulars.

355. The colonel, seeing the wheel nearly ended, will command:

1. Forward.  2. MARCH.

356. At the second command, which will be given at the instant the leading division completes its wheel, it will resume the direct march; the other divisions will conform themselves to this movement; and if any guide find himself not covering his immediate leader, he will, by slight degrees, bring himself on the trace of that guide by advancing the right shoulder.

357. If the column, right in front, has to change direction to the left, the colonel will first cause it to take the guide to the right, and then command:

1. Battalion, left wheel.  2. MARCH.

358. At the command march, the battalion will change direction to the left according to the principles just prescribed, and by inverse means.

359. When the battalion shall have resumed the direct march, the colonel will change the guide to the left, on seeing the last three guides nearly in the direction of the one in front.

360. The foregoing changes of direction will be executed according to the same principles in a column, left in front.

361. A column by company, closed in mass, will change direction in marching, by the commands and means indicated for a column by division.

362. The guide who is the pivot of the particular wheel, ought to maintain himself at his usual distance of six paces from the guide who precedes him; if this distance be not exactly preserved, the divisions would necessarily become confounded, which must be carefully avoided.

0-363. The platoon columns of the companies of skirmishers will change direction as prescribed for the battalion column, the leading platoons preserving their alignment with the first and last divisions respectively.

REMARKS.

0-364. When one or more platoons of the companies of skirmishers are deployed to cover a battalion closed in mass, either by company, or division, and the colonel desires their recall, it will be executed as prescribed No. 342.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

2nd.  To change direction from a halt.

365. A column by company, or by division, closed in mass, being at a halt, when the colonel shall wish to give it a new direction, and in which it is to remain, he will cause it to execute this movement by the flanks of subdivisions, in the following manner:

366. The battalion having the right in front, when the colonel shall wish to cause it to change direction by the right flank, he will indicate to the lieutenant-colonel the point of direction to the right; this officer will immediately establish, on the new direction, two markers, distant from each other a little less than the front of the first subdivision, the first marker in front of the right file of this subdivision; which being executed, he will command:

1. Change direction by the right flank.  2. Battalion, right—FACE.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

367. At the second command, the column will face to the right, and each chief of subdivision will place himself by the side of his right guide.

0-368. At the same command the platoon columns of the companies of skirmishers will face to the right, the guides will place themselves on the right of their platoons respectively, and each chief of platoon will place himself by the side of his guide.

369. At the command march, all the subdivisions will step off together; the right guide of the leading one will direct himself from the first step, parallelly to the markers placed in advance on the new direction; the chief of the sub division will not follow the movement, but see it file past, and as soon as the left guide shall have passed he will command:

1. First company (or first division).  2. HALT.  3. FRONT.  4. Left—DRESS.

370. At the fourth command, the subdivision, will place itself against the two markers, and be promptly aligned by its chief.

371. The right guide of each of the following subdivisions will conform himself to the direction of the right guide of the subdivision preceding his own in the column, so as to enter on the new direction parallelly to that subdivision, and at the distance of four paces from its rear rank.

372. Each chief of subdivision will halt in his own person, on arriving opposite to the left guides already placed on the new direction, see his subdivision file past, and conform himself, in halting and aligning it, to what is prescribed No. 369.

0-373. At the command march, by the colonel, the platoon columns will step off together, each chief of platoon placed by the side of his guide will conduct it to its new position, which will be executed according to the principles prescribed for the battalion column.  When the movement is completed, the relative positions of platoons and the battalion column, will be the same as before the change of direction.

374. If the change of direction be by the left flank, the colonel will cause markers to be established as before, the first in front of the left file of the leading subdivision, and then give the same commands, substituting the indication left for right.

375. At the second command, all the subdivisions will face to the left, and each chief will place himself by the side of the left guide.

0-376. At the same command, the platoon columns will face to the left, and each chief of platoon will place himself by the side of his guide.

377. At the command march, all the subdivisions will step off together, each conducted by its chief.

378. The guide of the leading subdivision will direct himself, from the first step, parallelly to the markers; the subdivision will be conducted by its chief; and as soon as its left guide shall have passed the second marker, it will be halted and aligned as prescribed above; and so of each of the following subdivisions.

0-379. At the command march, the platoon columns will step off together, and each platoon, conducted by its chief, will conform to the principles prescribed No. 373, the chiefs of platoon taking care so to conduct them, that when they file to the right, to march on the prolongation of the subdivisions of the battalion column, they will have sufficient distance to march over, so as to enter on the new direction in their full length before halting.

380. The colonel will hold himself on the designated flank, to see that each subdivision enters the new direction parallelly to the leading one, and at the prescribed distance from that which precedes.

381. The lieutenant-colonel will place himself in front of, and facing, to, the guide of the leading subdivision, and will assure the positions of the following guides, as they successively arrive on the new direction.

382. The senior major will follow the movement abreast with the last subdivision; the junior major will occupy the position prescribed No. 336.

383. In order that this movement may be executed with facility and precision, it is necessary that the leading subdivision should entirely unmask the column; for example, the movement being made by the right flank, it is necessary, before halting the leading subdivision, that its left guide shall, at least, have arrived at the place previously occupied by its right guide, in order that each following subdivision which has to pass over a space at least equal to its front, to put itself in the new direction, and whose left ought to pass the point at which the right had rested, may, at the command halt, find itself, in its whole front, parallel to the leading subdivision.

384. By this method there is no direction that may not be given to a column in mass.

ARTICLE IX.

Being in column at half distance, or closed in mass, to take distances.

385. A column at half distance will take full distances by the head of the column when it has to prolong itself in a column of route; it may also take full distance by the head of the column for the purposes of instruction, breaking into platoons, forming divisions, &c., &c.  If it has to form itself in line of battle on the ground it occupies, it will take distances on the leading or on the rearmost subdivision, according as the one or other may find itself at the point where the right or left of the battalion ought to rest in line of battle.

1st.  To take distances by the head of the column.

386. The column being by company at half distance and at a halt, when the colonel shall wish to cause it to take full distances by the head, he will command:

By the head of column, take wheeling distance.

387. At this command, the captain of the leading company will put it in march; to this end, he will command:

1. First company, forward.  2. Guide left.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

388. When the second shall have nearly its wheeling distance, its captain will command:

1. Second company, forward.  2. Guide left.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

389. At the command march, which will be pronounced at the instant that this company shall have its wheeling distance, it will step off smartly, taking the step from the preceding company.  Each of the other companies will successively execute what has just been prescribed for the second.

390. The colonel will see that each company puts itself in march at the instant it has its distance.

391. The lieutenant-colonel will hold himself at the head of the column, and direct the march of the leading guide.

392. The senior major will hold himself abreast with the rearmost guide.  The junior major will take post as prescribed Nos. 94 or 259, as the column may be in the cadence or route step.

393. If the column, instead of being at a halt, be in march, the colonel will give the same commands, and add:

MARCH.

394. If the column be marching in quick time, at the first command given by the colonel, the captain of the leading company will command: Double quick.  At the command march, the company will take the double quick step, which will also be done by the other captains as their companies successively attain their proper wheeling distances.  Should it be the wish of the colonel to resume the quick time after attaining the wheeling distances, he will give the necessary commands.

395. If the column be marching in double quick time, the leading company will continue to march at the same gait.  At the first command by the colonel, the captains of the other companies will command: quick time.  At the command march, these companies will take the quick step, and as each company gains its proper distance its captain will cause it to retake the double quick step.

REMARKS.

0-396. If the companies of skirmishers are present with, but do not march in the column, in taking full distance, at the first command by the colonel, the chief of the leading platoon will give the same commands as prescribed for the captain of the leading battalion company, and march abreast with that company; the other platoons will take their distances by the means prescribed for the battalion companies, the leading platoon of the last platoon column taking up the march at the same time, and marching abreast with the last battalion company.

2nd.  To take distances on the rear at the column.

397. If the colonel wish to take distances on the rearmost company, he will establish two markers on the direction he shall wish to give to the line of battle, the first opposite to the rearmost company, the second marker toward the head of the column, at company distance from the first, and both facing to the rear; at the same time, the right general guide, on an intimation from the lieutenant-colonel, will move rapidly a little beyond the point to which the head of the column will extend, and place himself correctly on the prolongation of the two markers.  These dispositions being made, the colonel will command:

1. On the eighth company, take wheeling distance.  2. Column forward.  3. Guide left.  4. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

398. At the first command, the captain of the eighth company will caution it to stand fast.  At the third command, the captains will place themselves two paces outside of the directing flank.

0-399. At the first command, the chief of the second platoon of the second platoon column will face his platoon about.  At the third command, he will command guide right, and place himself two paces outside of its directing flank; at the first command, the chief of the first platoon of the same column, and the chief of the second platoon of the first platoon column, will caution their platoons to stand fast.

400. At the command march, repeated by all the captains, except the captain of the eighth company, this latter company will stand fast; its chief will align it by the left on the first marker, who is opposite to this company, the left guide stepping in rear of the left file for this purpose, and place himself before its centre, after commanding: FRONT.  At this command, the marker will retire, and the left guide will take his place.

401. All the other companies will put themselves in march, the guide of the leading one directing himself a little within the right general guide; when the seventh company has arrived opposite the second marker, its captain will halt, and align it on this marker, in the manner prescribed for the eighth company.

402. When the captain of the sixth company shall see that there is, between his company and the seventh, the necessary space for wheeling into line, he will halt his company; the guide facing to the rear will place himself promptly on the direction, and the moment he shall be assured in his position, the captain will align the company by the left, and then place himself two paces before its centre; the other companies will successively conform themselves to what has just been prescribed for the sixth company.

0-403. At the command march, repeated by all the chiefs of platoon of the companies of skirmishers, except the chief of the second platoon, first platoon column and the first platoon second platoon column, these two latter platoons will stand fast, the other platoons will put themselves in march, the first platoon first platoon column keeping aligned with the first battalion company.  When the second platoon of the first platoon column shall have nearly its full distance, its chief will command: 1. Second platoon forward; 2. Guide left; 3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH); at which the platoon will step off, its left guide following in the trace of the guide of the first platoon.  When the second platoon of the second platoon column shall have attained its distance, it will be halted, and faced about, its guide will cover the guide of the platoon in front, and the platoon will be dressed to the left.

0-404. The captain of the first company of skirmishers will halt his platoon column at the same time the first battalion company halts.  Each chief of platoon will dress his platoon to the left, the first in a line with the first battalion company.

405. The colonel will follow the movement, and see that each company halts at the prescribed distance; he will promptly remedy any fault that may be committed, and, as soon as all the companies shall be aligned, he will cause the guides, who are faced to the rear, to face about.

406. The lieutenant-colonel will successively assure the left guides on the direction, placing himself in their rear, as they arrive.

407. The senior major will hold himself at the head of the column, and will direct the march of the leading guide. The junior major will hold himself as prescribed No. 94.

3rd.  To take distances on the head of the column.

408. The colonel, wishing to take distances on the leading company, will establish two markers in the manner just prescribed, one abreast with this company, and the other at company distance in rear of the first, but both facing to the front; the left general guide, on an intimation from the lieutenant-colonel, will move rapidly to the rear and place himself correctly on the prolongation of the two markers, a little beyond the point to which the rear of the column will extend: these dispositions being made, the colonel will command:

1. On the first company, take wheeling distance.  2. Battalion, about—FACE.  3. Column, forward.  4. Guide right.  5. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

409. At the first command, the captain of the first company will caution it to remain faced to the front.  At the second command, all the companies, except the one designated, will face about, the guides remaining in the front rank, now become the rear.

0-410. At the first command, the chief of the first platoon of the first platoon column, will caution it to remain faced to the front.  At the second command, all the platoons except the one designated, will face about, the guides remaining as indicated No. 409.

411. At the fourth command, the captains will place themselves outside of their guides.

0-412. At the same command, the chief of each second platoon of the platoon column, will place himself two paces outside his guides.

413. At the command march, the captain of the designated company will align it, as prescribed, No. 400, on the marker placed by its side.

414. The remaining companies will put themselves in march, the guide of the rearmost one will direct himself a little within the left general guide; when the second company shall have arrived opposite the second marker, its captain will face it about, conforming to what is prescribed, No. 321, and align it, as has just been prescribed for the first company.  Should the movement be performed in quick time at the command halt by the captain, the guide will face about and place himself on the line.

415. The instant that the third company shall have its wheeling distance, its captain will halt it, facing it about as prescribed No. 321, and align it by the left; the captains of the remaining companies will each, in succession, conform himself to what has just been prescribed for the captain of the third.

0-416. At the same command, the first platoon of the first platoon column, will stand fast; all the other platoons will put themselves in march; the second platoon of the first platoon column having attained its distance, will be halted by its chief, faced about and dressed to the left; the first platoon of the second platoon column will march on a line with the last battalion company, will be halted and faced about at the same time with that company, and dressed to the left; the second platoon of this same column having attained its distance will execute what has just been prescribed for the second platoon of the first platoon column.

417. The colonel will follow the movement, as indicated No. 405; the lieutenant-colonel and senior major will conform themselves to what is prescribed, No. 406 and 407; the junior major will hold himself abreast with the color company on the reverse flank.

418. These various movements will be executed according to the same principles in a column with the left in front.

419. They will be executed in like manner in a column closed in mass; but, if it be the wish of the colonel to open out the column to half, instead of full distance, he will substitute, in the commands, the indication half, for that of wheeling distance.

420. In a column by division, distances will be taken according to the same principles.

REMARK.

0-421. The platoon columns will retain the close order when the battalion column takes half distance from being closed in mass.

ARTICLE X.

Countermarch of a column at full or half distance.

422. In a column at full or half distance, the countermarch will be executed by the means indicated, school of the company; to this end, the colonel will command:

1. Countermarch.  2. Battalion right (or left)—FACE.  3. By file left (or right).  4. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

0-423. If the column is at full distance right or left in front, in countermarching the platoon columns will countermarch at the commands given for the battalion column and by the means prescribed in the S. C., No. 350, observing what follows; at the second command by the colonel, the guides of the platoons before facing about, will advance on the prolongation of the line, passing through them a distance equal to the front of a platoon.  At the command march, each platoon will file to the front a platoon distance before filing to the left or right, for the purpose of being dressed on its guide.

To countermarch a column closed in mass.

424. If the column be closed in mass, the countermarch will be executed by the commands and means subjoined.

425. The column being supposed formed by division, right in front, the colonel will command:

1. Countermarch.  2. Battalion, right and left—FACE.  3. By file left and right.  4. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

426. At the first command, the chiefs of the odd-numbered divisions will caution them to face to the right, and the chiefs of the others to face to the left.

427. At the second command, the odd divisions will face to the right, and the even to the left; the right and left guides of all the divisions will face about; the chiefs of odd divisions will hasten to their right and cause two files to break to the rear, and each chief place himself on the left of the leading front-rank man of his division; the chiefs of even divisions will hasten to their left, and cause two files to break to the rear, and each chief place himself on the right of his leading front-rank man.

428. At the command march, all the divisions, each conducted by its chief, will step off smartly, the guides standing fast; each odd division will wheel by file to the left around its right guide; each even division will wheel by file to the right around its left guide, each division 80 directing its march as to arrive behind its opposite guide, and when its head shall be up with this guide, the chief will halt the division, and cause it to face to the front.

429. Each division, on facing to the front, will be aligned by its chief by the right; to this end, the chiefs of the even divisions will move rapidly to the right of their respective divisions.

430. The divisions being aligned, each chief will command, FRONT; at this, the guides will shift to their proper flanks.

431. In a column with the left in front, the countermarch will be executed by the same commands and means; but all the divisions will be aligned by the left; to this end, the chiefs of the odd divisions will hasten to the left of their respective divisions as soon as the latter shall have been faced to the front.

432. The colonel, placed on the directing flank, will superintend the general movement.

433. The countermarch being ended, the lieutenant-colonel will always place himself abreast with the leading, and the senior major abreast with the rearmost division, the junior major will hold himself abreast with the color company.

434. In a column by company, closed in mass, the countermarch will be executed by the same means and commands. applying to companies what is prescribed for divisions.

435. The countermarch will always take place from a halt, whether the column be closed in mass, or at full or half distance.

0-436. If the column is at half distance or closed in mass, right or left in front, in counter marching, the first platoon of each platoon column, will face to the right, and the second platoon to the left.  At the first command by the colonel, each chief of platoon will give the necessary caution; at the second command the platoons will face at the same time with the battalion column; the platoon guides before facing about will advance on the prolongation of the line, passing through them a distance of six paces.  At the command march, each platoon conducted by its chief will file to the front a distance of six paces before filing to the left or right, for the purpose of being dressed on its guide.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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