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ARTICLE XI.

Being in column by company, closed in mass, to form divisions.

437. The column being closed in mass, right in front, and at a halt, when the colonel shall wish to form divisions, he will command:

1. Form divisions.  2. Left company, left—FACE.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

438. At the first command, the captains of the left companies will caution them to face to the left.

439. At the second command, the left companies will face to the left, and their captains will place themselves by the side of their respective left guides.

440. The right companies, and their captains, will stand fast; but the right and left guides of each of these companies will place themselves respectively before the right, and left files of the company, both guides facing to the right, and each resting his right arm gently against the breast of the front-rank man of the file, in order to mark the direction.

441. At the command march, the left companies only will put themselves in march, their captains standing fast; as each shall see that his company, filing past, has nearly cleared the column, he will command:

1. Such company.  2. HALT.  3. FRONT.

442. The first command will be given when the company shall yet have four paces to march; the second at the instant it shall have cleared its right company: and the third immediately after the second.

443. The company having faced to the front, the files, if there be intervals between them, will promptly incline to the right; the captain will place himself on the left of the right company of the division, and align himself correctly on the front rank of that company.

444. The left guide will place himself at the same time before one of the three left files of his company, face to the right, and cover correctly the guides of the right company; the moment his captain sees him established on the direction, he will command:

Right—DRESS.

445. At this, the left company will dress forward on the alignment of the right company; the front-rank man, who may find himself opposite to the left guide, will, without preceding his rank, rest lightly his breast against the right arm of this guide; the captain of the left company will direct its alignment on this man, and the alignment being assured, he will command, FRONT; but not quit his position.

446. The colonel seeing the divisions formed, will command:

Guides—POSTS.

447. At this, the guides who have marked the fronts of divisions will return to their places in column, the left guide of each right company passing through the interval in the centre of the division, the captains and covering sergeants stepping out for that purpose as hereinafter prescribed No. 470, and the captains will place themselves as prescribed No. 87.

448. The colonel, from the directing flank of the column, will superintend the general execution of the movement.

449. If the column be in march, instead of at a halt, when the colonel shall wish to form divisions, he will command:

1. Form divisions.  2. Left companies, by the left flank.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

450. At the first command, the captains of the right companies will command, Mark time, the captains of the left companies will caution their companies to face by the left flank.

451. At the third command, the right companies will mark time, the left companies will face to the left; the captains of the left companies will each see his company file past him, and when it has cleared the column, will command: Such company, by the right flank—MARCH.  As soon as the divisions are formed, the colonel will command:

4. Forward.  5. MARCH.

452. At the fifth command, the column will resume the gait at which it was marching previous to the commencement of the movement.  The guides of each division will remain on the right and left of their respective companies; the left guide of the right company will pass into the line of file closers, before the two companies are united; the right guide of the left company will step into the rear rank.  The captains will place themselves as prescribed No. 87.

453. If the column be at a halt and at full or half distance instead of closed in mass, divisions will be formed in the same manner; but the captains of the left companies, if the movement be made in quick time, after commanding FRONT, will each place himself before the centre of his company, and command, 1. Such company, forward.  2. Guide right.  3. MARCH.  If the movement be made in double quick time, each will command as soon as his company has cleared the column:

1. Such company, by the right flank.  2. MARCH.

454. The right guide of each left company will so direct his march as to arrive by the side of the man on the left of the right company.  The left company being nearly up with the rear rank of the right company, its captain will halt it, and the movement will be finished as prescribed No. 444 and following.

455. If the left be in front, the movement will be executed by inverse means; the right companies will conform themselves to what is prescribed above for the left companies; and the two guides, placed respectively, before the right and left files of each left company, will face to the left.  At the command, Guides, posts, given by the colonel, the guides, who have marked the front of divisions, and the captains, will quickly retake their places in the column.

456. If the column be marching at full distance, the divisions will be formed as prescribed No. 236.  If it be marching at half distance, the formation will take place by the commands and according to the principles indicated No. 449; if the column be marching in double quick time, the companies which should mark time will march in quick time by the command of their captains.

REMARKS ON THE FORMATION OF DIVISIONS FROM A HALT.

457. As this movement may be considered as the element of deployments, it ought to be executed with the utmost accuracy.

458. If companies marching by the flank do not preserve exactly their distances, there will be openings between the files at the instant of facing to the front.

459. If captains halt their companies too early, they will want space, and the files which have not cleared the flanks of the standing companies will not be able to dress into line without pushing their ranks laterally.

460. If, on the contrary, the companies be halted too late, it will be necessary for them to incline to the right or left in dressing; and, in deployments, either of these faults would lead to error in the following companies.

461. As often as the guide shall have to step out to place himself before his subdivision in order to mark the direction, he will be particularly careful to place himself so as to be opposite to one of the three outer files of the subdivision when they shall be aligned: if he take too much distance, and neither of those files finds itself against him, the chiefs of the subdivision will have no assured point on which to direct the alignment.

0-462. In the formation of divisions either from a halt or on a march, the platoon columns of the companies of skirmishers will retain their relative positions to the battalion column, and to this end the captain of the second platoon column, when tile right is in front, will move his column up until his leading platoon is on a line with the last division; and when the left is in front, the captain of the first platoon column will move his column up until his leading platoon is on a line with the first division.

PART FOURTH.

DIFFERENT MODES OF PASSING FROM THE ORDER IN COLUMN TO THE ORDER IN BATTLE.

ARTICLE I.

Manner of determining the line of battle.

463. The line of battle may be marked or determined in three different manners: 1st, by placing two markers eighty or a hundred paces apart, on the direction it is wished to give to the line; 2nd, by placing a marker at the point at which it may be intended to rest a flank, and then choosing a second point toward the opposite flank, and there posting a second marker distant from the first a little less than the front of the subdivision; 3rd, by choosing at first the points of direction for the flanks, and then determining, by intermediate point, the straight line between those selected points, both of which may sometimes be beyond reach.

ARTICLE II.

Mode of passing from column at full distance into line of battle.

To the left (or right) into line of battle.

Column at fun distance, right in front, to the left into line of battle.

464. A column, right in front, being at a halt,  when the colonel shall wish to form it to the left into line, he will assure the positions of the guides by the means previously indicated, and then command:

1. Left into line, wheel.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

465. At the first command, the right guide of the leading company will hasten to place himself on the direction of the left guides of the column, face to them, and place himself so as to be opposite to one of the three right files of his company, when they shall be in line: he will be assured in this position by the lieutenant-colonel.

466. At the command march, briskly repeated by the captains, the left front-rank man of each company will face to the left, and rest his breast lightly against the right arm of his guide; the companies will wheel to the left on the principle of wheeling from a halt, conforming themselves to what is prescribed in the S. C., No. 244: each captain will turn to his company, to observe the execution of the movement, and, when the right of the company shall arrive at three paces from the line of battle, he will command:

1. Such company.  2. HALT.

467. The company being halted, the captain will place himself on the line by the side of the left front-rank man of the company next on the right, align himself correctly, and command:

3. Right—DRESS.

468. At this command, the company will dress up between the captain and the front-rank man on its left, the captain directing the alignment on that man; the front-rank man on the right of the right company, who finds himself opposite to its right guide, will lightly rest his breast against the left arm of this guide.

469. Each captain, having aligned his company, will command FRONT, and the colonel will add: Guides—POSTS.

470. At this command, the guides will return to their places in line of battle, each passing through the nearest captain’s interval; to permit him to pass, the captain will momentarily step before the first file of his company, and the covering sergeant behind the same file.  This rule is general for all the formations into line of battle.

471. When companies form line of battle, file closers will always place themselves exactly two paces from the rear rank, which will sufficiently assure their alignment.

472. The battalion being correctly aligned, the colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and majors, as well as the adjutant and sergeant-major, will return to their respective places in line of battle.  This rule is general for all the formations into line of battle; nevertheless, the battalion being in the school of elementary instruction, the colonel will go to any point he may deem necessary.

473. A column, with the left in front, will form itself to the right into line of battle, according to the same principles; the left guide of the left company will place himself, at the first command, on the direction of the right guides, in a manner corresponding to what is prescribed, No. 465, for the right guide of the right company.

474. At the command guides posts, the captains will take their places in line of battle, as well as the guides.  This rule is general for all formations into line of battle, in which the companies are aligned by the left.

475. A column by division may form itself into line of battle by the same commands and means, but observing what follows: if the right be in front, at the command halt, given by the chiefs of division, the left guide of each right company will place himself on the alignment opposite to one of the three files on the left of his company; the left guide of the first company, facing toward the right, will be assured on the direction by the lieutenant-colonel; the left guides of the other right companies will align themselves correctly on the division guides; to this end the division guides (on the alignment) will invert, and hold their pieces up perpendicularly before the centre of their bodies, at the command left into line, wheel.  If the column by division be with the left in front, the right guides of left companies will conform themselves to what has just been prescribed for the left guides of right companies, and place themselves on the line opposite to one of the three right files of their respective companies.

476. A column in march will be formed into line, without halting, by the same commands and means.  At the command march, the guides will halt in their places, and the lieutenant-colonel will promptly rectify their positions.

0-477. The platoon columns of the companies of skirmishers will be wheeled into line by the means prescribed in the S. C., No. 262, and following, observing what follows: if the battalion column be at a halt, at the first command by the colonel, the captain of each platoon column will command Forward, guide left (or right), and at the command march, by the colonel, each platoon column will march to the front a platoon distance, and then be wheeled into line as above indicated; if the battalion column is on a march, at the first command by the colonel, the captain of each platoon column will caution his column to continue the march to the front, and at the command march, by the colonel, they will continue the march, and wheel into line as above indicated.

478. If, in forming the column into line, the colonel should wish to move forward, without halting, he will command:

1. By companies left wheel.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

479. At the command march, briskly repeated by the captain, each company will wheel to the left on a fixed pivot, as prescribed in the S. C., No. 266; the left guides will step back into the rank of file closers before the wheel is completed, and when the right of the companies shall arrive near the line, the colonel will command:

3. Forward.  4. MARCH.  5. Guide centre.

480. At the fourth command, given at the instant the wheel is completed, the companies will march directly to the front.  At the fifth command, the color and the general guides will move rapidly six paces to the front.  The colonel will assure the direction of the color; the captains of companies and the men will, at once, conform themselves to the principles of the march in line of battle, to be hereinafter indicated, No. 648 and following.

0-481. At the first command by the colonel, the captain of each platoon column will caution his column to march straight to the front; at the second command by the colonel each platoon column, after marching to the front a platoon distance, will be wheeled into line by the commands and means prescribed in the S. C., No. 265 and following.

0-482. At the fourth command, the men of each company of skirmishers will move off. together, each captain placing himself two paces in front of the centre of his company; the first sergeant will step into the front-rank.  At the fifth command, the captains of the first and second companies of skirmishers will command guide right, and left, respectively, and the right guide of the first, will march in the trace of the right guide of the first battalion company, and at a distance from the latter of thirty-three paces; the left guide of the second will march in the trace of the left guide of the left battalion company, and at the distance above indicated.

483. The same principles are applicable to a column left in front.

By inversion to the right (or left) into line of battle.

484. When a column, right in front, shall be under the necessity of forming itself into line faced to the reverse flank, and the colonel shall wish to execute this formation by the shortest movement, he will command:

1. By inversion, right into line, wheel.  2. Battalion guide right.

485. At the first command, the lieutenant-colonel will place himself in front, and facing to the right guide of the leading subdivision: at the second command, he will rectify, as promptly as possible, the direction of the right guides of the column; the captain of the odd company, if there be one, and the column be by division, will promptly bring the right of his company on the direction, and at company distance from the division next in front;, the left guide of the leading subdivision will place himself on the direction of the right guides, and will be assured in his position by the lieutenant-colonel; which being executed, the colonel will command:

3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

486. At this the right front-rank man of each subdivision will face to the right, rest his breast lightly against the left arm of his guide, and the battalion will form itself to the right into line of battle, according to the principles prescribed; which being executed, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.

487. If the column be with the left in front, it will form itself, by inversion, to the left into line, according to the same principles.

488. If the colonel should wish the battalion, when formed into line of battle, to be moved forward, the movement will be executed by the commands, and according to the principles indicated in No. 478; always preceding the command, by companies right (or left) wheel, by the command, by inversion.

0-489. When the column wheels into line by inversion, either at a halt, or on a march, at the first command by the colonel, the first platoon column will be faced to the right and filed to the left, and the second platoon column will be faced to the left, and filed to the right around the flanks of the column, and take post as prescribed No. 61.  When the line again breaks into column, at the first command by the colonel, each company of skirmishers will be broken by platoon, either by wheeling or ploying, and at the command march, they will be moved into their proper positions in column, according to the principles prescribed for similar movements.

Successive Formations.

490. Under the denomination of successive formations are included all those formations where the several subdivisions of a column arrive one after another on the line of battle; such are formations on the right, or left, and faced to the rear into line of battle, as well as deployments of columns in mass.

491. The successive formations which may be ordered when the column is marching, and is to continue marching, will be executed by a combination of the two gaits, quick and double quick time.

ARTICLE III.

Different modes of passing from column at half distance, into line of battle.

 

1. To the left (or right)

2. On the right (or left)

3. Forward, by deployment,

4. Faced to the rear,

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into line of battle.

1st.  Column at half distance, to the left (or right) into line of battle.

492. A column at half distance having to form itself to the left (or right) into line of battle, the colonel will cause it to take distances by one of the means prescribed, Article IX., Part Third, of this school; which being executed, he will form the column into line of battle, as has been indicated, No. 464, and following.

493. If a column by company, at half distance be in march, and it be necessary to form rapidly into line of battle, the colonel will command:

1. By the rear of column left (or right) into line, wheel.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

494. At the first command, the right general guide will move rapidly to the front, and place himself a little beyond the point where the head of the column will rest, and on the prolongation of the guides.  The captain of the eighth company will command: Left into line, wheel; the other captains will caution their companies to continue to march to the front.

0-495. At the same command, each chief of platoon of the companies of skirmishers, will caution his platoon to continue its, march to the front.

496. At the command march, briskly repeated by the captain of the eighth company, the guide of this company will halt short, and the company will wheel to the left, conforming to the principles prescribed for wheeling from a halt; when its right shall arrive near the line, the captain will halt the company, and align it by the left.  The other captains will place themselves briskly on the flank of the column; when the captain of the seventh sees there is sufficient distance between his company and the eighth to form the latter into line, he will command: Left into line, wheel—MARCH; the left guide will halt short, and facing to the rear, will place himself on the line; the company will wheel to the left, the man on the left of the front rank will face to the left, and place his breast against the left arm of the guide; the captain will halt the company when its right shall arrive near the line, and will align it by the left.  The other companies will conform successively to what has just been prescribed for the seventh.

497. Each captain will direct the alignment of his company on the left man in the front rank of the company next on his right.

498. The lieutenant-colonel will be watchful that the leading guide marches accurately on the prolongation of the line of battle, and directs himself on the right general guide.  The senior major, placed in rear of the left guide of the eighth company, will, as soon as the guide of the seventh company is established on the direction, hasten in rear of the guides of the other companies, so as to assure each of them in succession on the line.  The junior major, will hold his position abreast with the color company.

0-499. At the command march, by the colonel, the chief of each platoon of the platoon columns will place himself on its directing flank; the chief of the second platoon of the second platoon column, will command, left into line, wheel, and he will add march, as soon as his guide is abreast with the left file of the last battalion company; at this the guide of the platoon will halt fast, the platoon will wheel to the left, and will be aligned to the left by its chief; when the chief of the first platoon of the same column judges there is sufficient distance between his platoon and the second to form the latter into line, will command, left into line, wheel—MARCH; the guide of this platoon will hasten to the right of the company, and place himself abreast with one of the three right files, face toward and cover the left guide, the captain will then dress the company to the left.  When the chief of the second platoon of the first platoon column arrives abreast with the left file of the first battalion company, it will be wheeled into line, as also its first platoon, in the manner prescribed for the platoons of the second platoon column.

2nd.  Column at half distance, on the right (or on the left), into line of battle.

500. A column by company, at half distance and right in front, having to form itself on the right into line of battle, the colonel will indicate to the lieutenant-colonel a little in advance, the point d’appui, or rest, for the right, as well as the point of direction to the left; the lieutenant-colonel will hasten with two markers, and establish them in the following manner on the direction indicated.

501. The first marker will be placed at the point d’appui for the right front-rank man of the leading company; the second will indicate the point where one of the three left files of the same company will rest when in line; they will be placed so as to present the right shoulder to the battalion when formed.

502. These dispositions being made, the colonel will command:

1. On the right into line.  2. Battalion, guide right.

503. At the second command, the right will become the directing flank, and the touch of the elbow will be to that side; the right guide of the leading company will march straight-forward until up with the turning point, and each following guide will march in the trace of the one immediately preceding.

0-504. At the same command the chief of each platoon column of the companies of skirmishers will command, company, by the left flank.

505. The leading company being nearly up with the first marker, its captain will command: 1. Right turn, and when the company is precisely up with this marker, he will add: 2. MARCH.

506. At the command march, the company will turn to the right; the right guide will so direct himself as to bring the man next to him opposite to the right marker, and when at three paces from him, the captain will command: 1. First company.  2. HALT.

507. At the second command, the company will halt; the files, not yet in line, will form promptly; the left guide will retire as a file closer; and the captain will then command: 3. Right—DRESS.

508. At this command, the company will align itself; the two men who find themselves opposite to the two markers, will each lightly rest his breast against the right arm of his marker; the captain, passing to the right of the front rank, will direct the alignment on these two men. These rules are general for all successive formations.

509. The second company will continue to march straight-forward; when arrived opposite to the left flank of the preceding company, it will turn to the right, and be formed on the line of battle, as has just been prescribed; the right guide will direct himself so as to come upon that line by the side of the man on the left of the first company.

510. At the distance of three paces from the line of battle, the company will be halted by its captain, who will place himself briskly by the side of the man on the left of the preceding company, and align himself correctly on its front rank.

511. The left guide will, at the same time, place himself before one of the three left files of his company, and, facing to the right, he will place himself accurately on the direction of the two markers of the preceding company.

512. The captain will then command: Right—DRESS.

513. At this command, the second company will dress forward on the line; the captain will direct its alignment on the front-rank man who has rested his breast against the left guide of the company.

514. The following companies will thus come successively to form themselves on the line of battle, each conforming itself to what has just been prescribed for the one next to the right; and when they shall all be established, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.

515. At this command, the guides will take their places in line of battle, and the markers placed before the right company will retire.

516. If the column be marching in quick time, and the colonel should wish to cause the movement to be executed in double quick time, he will add the command: Double quick—MARCH.  At the command march, all the companies will take the double quick step, and the movement will be executed as prescribed No. 503 and following.

0-517. At the command march, by the captain of the first battalion company, and briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the platoon columns will face by the left flank, and each chief will place himself by the side of his guide to conduct his platoon; the first platoon column taking the guide to the right will move straightforward, and when its head has arrived near the flank of the battalion column, it will be halted until the column has passed. When the last company has passed, the platoon column will be put in march.  When the first platoon column shall have arrived at a perpendicular distance of thirty-three paces from, and abreast with the marker established on the right of the line, its chief will command: By file right; halt in his own person, and let his platoon file around him parallel to the line of battle, and when the last file has passed, it will be halted and faced to the front.  The second platoon will pass to the rear of the first, and when its right file shall arrive abreast with the left file of the first, it will be halted by its chief and faced to the front.  The company will be dressed to the right by its captain.

0-518. The second platoon column will move to the front, and when the chief of the first platoon shall arrive abreast with the right file of the last battalion company (when on the line of battle), and thirty paces from its file closers, he will halt in his own person and let his platoon file past.  This platoon column will then execute what is prescribed for the first.  The company will be dressed to the left by its captain.

519. The colonel will follow up the formation, passing along the front, and being always opposite to the company about to turn: it is thus that he will be the better able to see and to correct the error that would result from a command given too soon or too late to the preceding company.

520. The lieutenant-colonel will, with the greatest care, assure the direction of the guides; to this end, the instant that the markers are established for the leading company, he will move a little beyond the point at which the left of the next company will rest, establish himself correctly on the prolongation of the two markers, and assure the guide of the second company on this direction; this guide being assured, the lieutenant-colonel will place himself farther to the rear, in order to assure, in like manner, the guide of the third company, and so on, successively, to the left of the battalion.  In assuring the guides in their positions on the line of battle, he will take care to let them first place themselves, and confine himself to rectifying their positions if they do not cover accurately, and at the proper distance, the preceding guides or markers.  This rule is general, for all successive formations.

521. A column, left in front, will form itself on the left into line of battle according to the same principles: the captains will go to the left of their respective companies to align them, and shift afterward to their proper flanks, as prescribed No. 474.

522. In a column left in front, the platoon columns will be governed by the same principles as are prescribed for them in a column right in front.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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