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ARTICLE VI.

To halt the battalion, marching in retreat, and to face it to the front.

744. The colonel having halted the battalion, and wishing to face it to the front, will command:

1. Face to the front.  2. Battalion, about—FACE.

745. At the second command, the color-rank, general guides, captains, and covering sergeants, will all retake their habitual places in line of battle, and the color-bearer will repass into the front rank.

0-746. At the second command the companies of skirmishers will face about with the battalion.

747. The battalion marching in line of battle by the front rank, when the colonel shall wish to march it in retreat, he will command:

1. Battalion, right about.  2. MARCH.

748. At the command march, the battalion will face to the rear and move off at the same gait by the rear rank.  The principles prescribed Nos. 736 and following will be carefully observed.

749. If the colonel should wish the battalion to march again by the front, he will give the same commands.

0-750. At the command march, the companies of skirmishers will come to the right about with the battalion, taking care to preserve their relative positions with regard to the battalion companies.

ARTICLE VII.

Change of direction in marching in retreat.

751. A battalion retiring in line will change direction by the commands and means indicated No. 717 and following; the three file closers, united behind the color-rank, will conform themselves to the movement of this rank and wheel like it; the centre file closer of the three will take steps of fourteen or seventeen inches, according to the gait, and keep himself steadily at the same distance from the color-bearer; the line of file closers will conform themselves to the movements of its centre, and the lieutenant-colonel will maintain it on that basis.

0-752. The companies of skirmishers, when the battalion changes direction, will conform to the movements of the first and last battalion companies.

ARTICLE VIII.

Passage of obstacles, advancing and retreating.

753. The battalion advancing in line will be supposed to encounter an obstacle which covers one or more companies; the colonel will cause them to ploy into column closed in mass, in rear of the next company toward the color, which will be executed in the following manner.  It win be supposed that the obstacle only covers the third company, the colonel will command:

Third company, obstacle.

754. At this command, the captain of the third company will place himself in its front, to turn it, and command: 1. Third company, by the left flank, to the rear into column.  2. Double quick.  3. MARCH.  He will then hasten to the left of his company.

755. At the command march, the company will face to the left in marching; the two left files will promptly disengage to the rear in double quick time; the left guide, placing himself at the head of the front rank, will conduct it behind the fourth company, directing himself parallelly with this company; the captain of the third will himself halt opposite to the captain of the fourth, and see his company file past; when its right file shall be nearly up with him, he will command: 1. Third company.  2. By the right flank.  3. MARCH.  4. Guide right, and place himself before the centre of his company.

756. At the command march, the company will face to the right, preserving the same gait; but the moment it shall be at the prescribed distance, its captain will command: 1. Quick time.  2. MARCH.

757. This company will thus follow in column that behind which it finds itself, and in close order, its right guide marching exactly in the trace of the captain of that company.

758. As soon as the third company shall have faced to the left, the left guide of the second will place himself on the left of the front rank of his company, and maintain between himself and the right of the fourth, the space necessary for the return into line of the third.

759. The obstacle being passed, the colonel will command: Third company into line.

760. At this command the captain, turning to his company, will add: 1. Company, by the right flank.  2. Double quick.  3. MARCH.

761. At the command march, the company will take the double quick step, the captain will hasten to the right of his company, halt in his own person; the company, conducted by its guide, will file past its captain parallel to the line, and when the left file has arrived abreast with him, the captain will command: 1. By the left flank.  2. MARCH.  3. Guide left.

762. At the command march, the company will direct itself straight-forward toward the line of battle, and retake its position in it according to the principles prescribed for deploying into line of battle while marching.

763. It will be supposed that the obstacle covers several contiguous companies (the three companies on the right for example), the colonel will command:

1. Three right companies, obstacle.  2. By the left flank, to the rear, into column.  3. Double quick—MARCH.

764. At the first command, the captains of the designated companies will each place himself before the centre of his company, and caution it as to the movement about to be executed.

0-765. At the same command, the captain of the first company of skirmishers will caution his company to face by the left flank.

766. At the command march, the designated companies will face to the left in marching, and immediately take the double quick step; each captain will cause the head of his company to disengage itself to the rear, and the left guide will place himself at the head of the front rank; the captain of the third company will conform himself to what is prescribed No. 755, and following: the captains of the other companies will conduct them by the flank in rear of the third, inclining toward the head of the column; and, as the head of each company arrives opposite to the right of the one next before it in column, its captain will himself halt, see his company file past, and conform himself for facing it to the front, in marching, to what is prescribed No. 755 and following.

0-767. At the same command, the first company of skirmishers will face by the left flank, and take the double quick step: the left guide will place himself on the left of the front rank, and the company, conducted by its chief, will follow the movement of the first battalion company, taking care to preserve its distance, and maintain its relative position.

768. When the last company in column shall have passed the obstacle, the colonel will command:

1. Three right companies into line.

769. At this command, the captain of each of these three companies will command, company by the right flank. The colonel will then add:

1. Double quick.  2. MARCH.

770. At this, briskly repeated by the captains of the three companies, each company will conform itself to what is prescribed No. 761 and following.  The captains of the second and first companies, respectively, halting in their own persons when the third and second face by the left flank.

0-771. At the same command, the first company of skirmishers will face by the right flank, take the double quick step, and follow the movements of the first battalion company, preserving its distance and position.

772. It is supposed, in the foregoing examples, that the companies belonged to the right wing; if they make part of the other, they will execute the passage of an obstacle according to the same principles and by inverse means.

773. When flank companies are broken off to pass an obstacle, the general guide on that flank will place himself six paces in front of the outer file of the nearest company to him remaining in line.

774. In the preceding movements, it has been supposed that the battalion was marching in quick time, but if it be marching in double quick time, and the colonel shall wish to cause several contiguous companies to break to the rear, he will first order the battalion to march in quick time; the companies will break as indicated No. 763.

775. When the movement is completed, the colonel may order the double quick step to be resumed.  He will also cause the battalion to march in quick time when he shall wish to bring into line the several companies which are to the rear in column; the movement will be executed as previously indicated; and when the last company shall have nearly completed its movement, the colonel may cause the double quick step to be resumed.

776. In the movement of a single company, or of several companies not contiguous to each other, the battalion will continue to march in double quick time, but in these cases the companies which are to ploy in column, or re-enter the line, will increase the gait.

777. If the colonel wishes to charge bayonet while advancing in line, he will previously order the color and general guides to their posts.

778. In the march in retreat, these several movements will be executed on the same principles as if the battalion marched by the front rank.

0-779. If in marching in retreat the first and last battalion companies ate broken off to pass an obstacle, the companies of skirmishers will be faced by the right and left flanks respectively, and take such position as to be covered by the same battalion companies that the first or last battalion company cover respectively.  When the first and last battalion companies come into line the companies of skirmishers will be faced by the flank, and resume their proper position.  In performing this movement the captain of each of the companies of skirmishers will take care to incline the head of his company well to the front, and to quicken the pace so the distances may not be lost.

780. When a battalion, advancing in line of battle, shall be obliged to execute the right about in order to retreat, if there be companies in column behind the rear rank, these companies will also execute the right about, put themselves in march at the same time with the battalion, and will thus precede it in the retreat.

781. If the battalion be marching in retreat in double quick time, and the colonel should desire to bring into line the companies which may be marching before the rear rank of the battalion, he will cause the battalion to take the quick step, he will then cause those companies to take full distance by the head of the column. The companies marching before the rear rank will then be brought successively into line as the ground will permit, whatever may be the gait of the battalion.

782. When the color-company shall be obliged to execute the movement of passing an obstacle, the color-rank will return into line at the moment the company shall face to the left or right; the senior major will place himself six paces before the extremity of the company behind which the color-company marches in column, in order to give the step and the direction; he himself first taking the step from the battalion.

783. As soon as the color-company shall have returned into line, the front rank of the color-guard will again move out six paces in front of the battalion, and take the step from the senior major; the latter will immediately place himself twenty or thirty paces in front of the color-bearer, and face to the colonel placed behind the centre of the battalion, who will establish him on the perpendicular; and, as soon as he shall be assured on it, the color-bearer will instantly take two points on the ground between himself and the senior major.

784. It is prescribed, as a general rule, that the companies of the right wing ought to execute the movement of passing obstacles by the left flank, and the reverse for the companies of the other wing; but if the obstacle cover at once several companies of the centre, each will file into column behind that, still in line, and of the same wing, which may be the nearest to it.

REMARKS ON THE DISPOSITION OF THE COMPANIES OF SKIRMISHERS, AND OF THE BATTALION COMPANIES, WHEN DEPLOYED AS SUCH.

785. When one or more platoons of the companies of skirmishers are deployed, and the colonel wishes to recall them, he will indicate his intention to the junior major, or other commandant of the line, who will either cause the rally on the battalion to be sounded or will command:  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

Rally on the battalion.

786. At this sound, or command, the skirmishers and reserves will rapidly unmask the front of the battalion, directing themselves in a run around its nearest flank: each company will immediately be formed in close column, by platoon in rear of the first and last battalion companies respectively, or behind any shelter whatever in the vicinity that may offer.  The companies of skirmishers will not be engaged in the fire of the line; but, in case the enemy are broken by the fire, they will be prepared for a rapid pursuit.  They will also cover the battalion when in retreat, unless the colonel should desire to face it about and open the fire of the line.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

787. When any of the battalion companies acting as skirmishers are rallied on the battalion in line, they will direct themselves around the nearest flank, as prescribed above, and form in the rear: they will then immediately take their proper places in the line.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

ARTICLE IX. 

To pass a defile, in retreat, by the right or left flank.

788. When a battalion, retiring in line, shall encounter a defile which it must pass, the colonel will halt the battalion, and face it to the front.

789. It will be supposed that the defile is in rear of the left flank, and that its width is sufficient to give passage to a column by platoon; the colonel will place a marker fifteen or twenty paces in rear of the file-closers at the point around which the subdivisions will have to change direction in order to enter the defile; he will then command:

To the rear, by the right flank, pass the defile.

790. The captain of the first company will immediately command:

1. First company, right—FACE.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

791. At the command march, the first company will commence the movement; the first file will wheel to the right, march to the rear till it shall have passed four paces beyond the file closers, when it will wheel again to the right, and then direct itself straight-forward toward the left flank.  All the other files of this company will come to wheel in succession at the same place where the first had wheeled.

792. The second company will execute, in its turn, the same movement, by the commands of its captain, who will give the command MARCH, so that the first file of his company may immediately follow the last of the first, without constraint, however, as to taking the step of the first; the first file of the second company will wheel to the right, on its ground; all the other files of this company will come in succession to wheel at the same place.  The following companies will execute, each in its turn, what has just been prescribed for the second.

793. When the whole of the second company shall be on the same direction with the first, the captain of the first will cause it to form, by platoon, into line, and the moment that it is in column, the guide of the first platoon will direct himself on the marker around whom he has to change direction in order to enter the defile.

794. The second company will continue to march by the flank, directing itself parallelly with the line of battle; and it, in its turn, will form by platoon into line, when the third company shall be wholly on the same direction with itself.

795. The following companies will successively execute what has just been prescribed for the second, and each will form by platoon into line, when the next company shall be on the same direction with itself.

796. The first platoon of the leading company having arrived opposite to the marker placed at the entrance of the defile, will turn to the left, and the following platoons will all execute this movement at the same point.  As the last companies will not be able to form platoons before reaching the defile, they will so direct themselves, in entering it, as to leave room to the left for this movement.

797. The battalion will thus pass the defile by platoon; and, as the two platoons of each company shall clear it, companies will be successively formed by the means indicated, S. C., No. 278, and following,

798. The head of the column having cleared the defile, and having reached the distance at which the colonel wishes to reform line faced to the defile, he may cause the leading company to turn to the left, to prolong the column in that direction, and then form it to the left into line of battle; or he may halt the column, and form it into line of battle faced to the rear, either direct or by inversion.

799. If it be the intention of the colonel to commence the fire before the whole column is disengaged from the defile, he may cause the leading company, when it has formed to change direction to the right, and then form on the right into line; or, that company may change direction to the left, and then the formation will be on the left into line by inversion.

800. If the defile be in the rear of the right flank, it will be passed by the left; the movement will be executed according to the same principles, and by in verse means.

801. If the defile be too narrow to receive the front of a platoon, it will be passed by the flank.  Captains and file closers will be watchful that the files do not Jose their distances in marching.  Companies or platoons will be formed into line as the width of the defile may permit, or as the companies shall successively clear it.

REMARKS ON THE DISPOSITION OF THE COMPANIES OF SKIRMISHERS, IN PASSING A DEFILE.

802. If the companies of skirmishers are in rear of the battalion in line, at the first command by the colonel for passing the defile, they will be put in motion, and accompanied by the junior major, will immediately pass the defile either by platoon or by file, according to the width, the company nearest to the defile passing first: they will under the direction of the junior major, take such positions as may best protect the passage of the defile by the battalion companies.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

803. If the companies of skirmishers, or a portion of them, are deployed to cover the retreat, and the colonel desires to open the fire of the line previous to passing the defile, he will, before commencing the movement, cause the skirmishers to be rallied on the battalion, when they will immediately pass the defile.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

804. If the colonel does not wish to open the fire by line previous to passing the defile, the companies of skirmishers will cover the passage of the battalion companies before passing themselves.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

ARTICLE X.

To march by the flank.

805. The colonel, wishing the battalion to march by the flank, will command:

1. Battalion.  2. Right (or left)—FACE.  3. Forward.  4. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

806. At the second command, the captains and covering sergeants will place themselves as prescribed in the S. C., Nos. 138 and 143.

0-807. At the same command, the companies of skirmishers will face to the right or left, and the chiefs will place themselves as above indicated.

808. The sergeant on the left of the battalion will place himself to the left, and by the side of the last file of his company, covering the captains in file.

809. The battalion having to face by the left flank, the captains, at the second command, will shift rapidly to the left of their companies, and each place himself by the side of the covering sergeant of the company preceding his own, except the captain of the left company, who will place himself by the side of the sergeant on the left of the battalion.  The covering sergeant of the right company will place himself by the right side of the front-rank man of the rearmost file of his company, covering the captains in file.

810. At the command march, the battalion will step off with life; the sergeant, placed before the leading file (right or left in front), will be careful to preserve exactly the length and cadence of the step, and to direct himself straight-forward; to this end, he will take points on the ground.

811. At the same command, the companies of skirmishers will step off, the chiefs abreast with the captains of the first and last battalion companies respectively, and they will march parallel to them.

812. Whether the battalion march by the right or left flank, the lieutenant-colonel will place himself abreast with the leading file, and the senior major abreast with the color-file, both on the side of the front rank, and about six paces from it.  The junior major will hold himself as prescribed No. 94.

813. The adjutant, placed between the lieutenant-colonel and the front rank, will march in the same step with the head of the battalion, and the sergeant major, placed between the senior major and the color-bearer, will march in the same step with the adjutant.

814. The captains and file closers will carefully see that the files neither open out, nor close too much, and that they regain insensibly their distances, if lost.

815. The colonel wishing the battalion to wheel by file, will command:

1. By file right (or left).  2. MARCH.

816. The files will wheel in succession, and all at the place where the first had wheeled, in conforming to the principles prescribed in the school of the company.

817. The battalion marching by the flank when the colonel shall wish it to halt, he will command:

1. Battalion.  2. HALT.  3. FRONT.

818. These commands will be executed as prescribed in the S. C., No. 148.

819. If the battalion be marching by the flank, and the colonel should wish to cause it to march in line, either to the front or to the rear, the movements will be executed by the commands and means prescribed in the school of the company.

ARTICLE XI.

To form the battalion on the right or left, by file, into line of battle.

820. The battalion marching by the right flank, when the colonel shall wish to form it on the right by file, he will determine the line of battle, and the lieutenant-colonel will place two markers on that line, in conformity with what is prescribed No. 501.

821. The head of the battalion being nearly up with the first marker, the colonel will command:

1. On the right, by file, into line.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

822. At the command march, the leading company will form itself on the right, by file, into line of battle, as indicated in the S. C., No. 151; the front-rank man of the first file will rest his breast lightly against the right arm of the first marker; the other companies will follow the movement of the leading company; each captain will place himself on the line at the same time with the front-rank man of his first file, and on the right of this man,

823. The left guide of each company, except the leading one, will place himself on the direction of the markers, and opposite to the left file of his company, at the instant that the front-rank man of this file arrives on the line.

824. The formation being ended, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.

825. The colonel will superintend the successive formation of the battalion, moving along the front of the line of battle.

826. The lieutenant-colonel will, in succession, assure the direction of the guides, and see that the men of the front rank, in placing themselves on the line, do not pass it.

827. If the battalion march by the left flank, the movement will be executed according to the same principles, and by inverse means.

REMARKS.

828. As marching by the flank in the presence of the enemy is a very objectionable movement, it will not be executed except for the purpose of moving the battalion to the right or left for a short distance, or when the narrowness of the way will not permit a company front.

0-829. If the companies of skirmishers are present with the battalion when marching by the flank, and the colonel wishes either to file to the right or left, or to form on the right or left into line by file, he will, previous to commencing the movement, cause those companies formed as the battalion companies, to take post on the right and left of the battalion respectively.

ARTICLE XII.

CHANGES OF FRONT.

Change of front perpendicularly forward.

830. The battalion being in line of battle, it is supposed to be the wish of the colonel to cause a change of front forward on the right company, and that the angle formed by the old and new positions be a right angle, or a few degrees more or less than one; he will cause two markers to be placed on the new direction, before the position to be occupied by that company, and order its captain to establish it against the markers.

831. The captain of the right company will immediately direct it upon the markers by a wheel to the right on the fixed pivot; and after having halted it, he will align it by the right.

832. These dispositions being made, the colonel will command:

1. Change front forward on first company.  2. By company, right half wheel.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

833. At the first command, each captain will place himself before the centre of his company.

0-834. At the same command, the captain of the first company of skirmishers will face his company to the left, the left guide will step in front of the front-rank man of the left file, and the captain will place himself by the side of his guide; the captain of the second company will caution it to march straight-forward.

835. At the third, each company will wheel to the right on the fixed pivot, as prescribed in the S. C., No. 189; the left guide of each will place himself on its left as soon as he shall be able to pass; and when the colonel shall judge that the companies have sufficiently wheeled, he will command:

4. Forward.  5. MARCH.  6. Guide right.

836. At the fifth command, the companies ceasing to wheel will march straight-forward; at the sixth, the men will touch elbows toward the right.

837. The right guide of the second company will march straight-forward until this company shall arrive at the point where it should turn to the right; each succeeding right guide will follow the file immediately before him at the cessation of the wheel, and will march in the trace of this file until this company shall turn to the right to move upon the line; this guide will then march straight-forward.

838. The second company having arrived opposite to the left file of the first, its captain will cause it to turn to the right; the right guide will direct himself so as to arrive squarely upon the line of battle, and when he shall be at three paces from that line, the captain will command:

1. Second company.  2. HALT.

839. At the second command, the company will halt; the files not yet in line with the guide will come into it promptly, the left guide will place himself on the line of battle, and as soon as he is assured in the direction by the lieutenant-colonel, the captain will align the company by the right.

840. Each following company will conform to what has just been prescribed for the second.

0-841. At the third command by the colonel, the first company of skirmishers will step off, and be conducted by its captain in such manner that when the leading file arrives abreast with the right file of the first battalion company, it will be at a distance of thirty paces from the file-closers of that company; after prolonging itself its full length in a direction parallel to the first battalion company, it will be halted, faced to the front, and dressed to the right by its chief.  The second company will be marched straight-forward a distance of thirty-three paces, the captain will then cause it to execute what has been prescribed, Nos. 835, 836, and 837, observing what follows: the company will be halted, and dressed to the right the moment it turns to the right.

842. The formation ended, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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