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843. If the battalion be in march, and the colonel shall wish to change front forward on the first company, and that the angle formed by the old and new positions be a right angle, he will cause two markers to be placed on the new direction, before the position to be occupied by that company, and will command:

1. Change front forward on first company.  2. By company, right half wheel.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

844. At the first command, the captains will move rapidly before the centre of their respective companies; tile captain of the first company will command: 1. Right turn; 2. Quick time; the captains of the other companies will caution them to wheel to the right.

0-845. At the same command, the captain of the first company of skirmishers will command: Company by the left flank; the captain of the second company will caution it that it will have to move straight-forward.

846. At the command march, the first battalion company will turn to the right, according to the principles prescribed in the S. S., No. 415; its captain will halt it at three paces from the markers, and the files in rear will promptly come into line.  The captain will align the company by the right.

847. Each of the other companies will wheel to the right on a fixed pivot; the left guides will place themselves on the left of their respective companies, and when the colonel shall judge they have wheeled sufficiently, he will command:

4. Forward.  5. MARCH.  6. Guide right.

848. These commands will be executed as indicated No. 833 and following.

849. At the third command by the colonel, briskly repeated by the chiefs of the companies of skirmishers, the first company will execute what has been prescribed Nos. 834 and 841, and the second company what has been prescribed No. 841.

850. The colonel will cause the battalion to change front forward on the eighth company, according to the same principles and by inverse means.

0-851. The companies of skirmishers will execute this movement according to the same principles prescribed for them when changing front on the first battalion company, and by inverse means.

Change of front perpendicularly to the rear.

852. The colonel, wishing to change front to the rear on the right company, will impart his purpose to the captain of this company.  The latter will immediately face his company about, wheel it to the left on the fixed pivot, and halt it when it shall be in the direction indicated to him by the colonel; the captain will then face his company to the front, and align it by the right against the two markers, whom the colonel will cause to be established before the right and left files.

0-853. At the same time the captain of the first company of skirmishers will face it to the right, march it forward the distance of thirty-three paces, file it to the left, and establish it in rear of the first battalion company.

854. These dispositions being made, the colonel will command:

1. Change front to the rear, on first company.  2. Battalion, about—FACE.  3. By company, left half wheel.  4. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

855. At the second command, fill the companies, except the right, will face about.

0-856. At the second command, the second company of skirmishers will face about.

857. At the third, the captains whose companies have faced about, will each place himself behind the centre of his company, two paces from the front rank, now the rear.

0-858. At the same command, the captain of the second company of skirmishers will place himself as above indicated for the captains of the battalion companies.

859. At the fourth, these companies will wheel to the left on the fixed pivot by the rear rank; the left guide of each will, as soon as he is able to pass, place himself on the left of the rear rank of his company, now become the right; and when the colonel shall judge that the companies have sufficiently wheeled, he will command:

5. Forward.  6. MARCH.  7. Guide left.

860. At the sixth command, the companies will cease to wheel, march straight-forward toward the new line of battle, and, at the seventh, take the touch of the elbow toward the left.

861. The guide of each company on its right flank becomes left, will conform himself to the principles prescribed No. 837.

862. The second company, from the right, having arrived opposite to the left of the first, will turn to the left; the guide will so direct himself as to arrive parallelly with the line of battle, cross that line, and when the front rank, now in the rear, shall be three paces beyond it, the captain will command: 1. Second company; 2. HALT.

863. At the second command, the company will halt; the files which may not yet be in line with the guide, will promptly come into it; the captain will cause the company to face about, and then align it by the right.

864. All the other companies will execute what has just been prescribed for the second, each as it successively arrives opposite to the left of the company that precedes it on the new line of battle.

0-865. At the fourth command by the colonel, the second company of skirmishers will execute what has been prescribed for the battalion companies, Nos. 859 and 860, and when its left file shall have arrived in a perpendicular with the left of the seventh battalion company, it will turn to the left, and having crossed the line the distance of thirty-three paces, it will be halted, faced about, and dressed to the right by its chief.

866. The formation being ended, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.

867. The colonel will cause a change of front on the left company of the battalion to the rear, according to the same principles and by inverse means.

0-868. The companies of skirmishers will execute this movement according to the principles prescribed for them in changing front on the first battalion company, and by inverse means.

869. In changes of front, the colonel will give a general superintendence to the movement.

870. The lieutenant-colonel will assure the direction of the guides as they successively move out on the line of battle, conforming himself to what has been prescribed in the successive formations.

REMARKS ON CHANGES OF FRONT.

871. When the new direction is perpendicular, or nearly so, to that of the battalion, the companies ought to make about a half wheel (the eighth of the circle), before marching straight-forward; but when those two lines are oblique to each other, the smaller the angle which they form, the less ought the companies to wheel.  It is for the colonel to judge, according to the angle, the precise time when he ought to give the command march, after the caution forward, and if he cannot catch the exact moment, the word of execution should rather be given a little too soon, than an instant too late.

872. When the old and new lines form an angle of forty-five or fewer degrees, the colonel will find it necessary to arrest the wheel of the companies when the marching flanks shall have taken but a few paces, or, it may be, have but disengaged, respectively, from the fixed pivots of the next companies; and in all such cases, the companies will arrive so nearly parallel to the new line, as to be able to align themselves upon it without the intermediate turn to the right or left; to execute the movement under either circumstance supposed, the colonel will command:

Oblique change of front, forward (or to the rear) on (such) company.

873. In the oblique changes of front, the companies of skirmishers will be established parallel to the first and last battalion companies, and by the means heretofore explained.

ARTICLE XIII.

To ploy the battalion into column doubled on the centre.

874. This movement consists in ploying the corresponding companies of the right and left wings into column at company distance, or closed in mass, in rear of the two centre companies, according to the principles prescribed, Article Third, Part Second, of this School.

875. The colonel, wishing to form the double column at company distance (the battalion being in line of battle), will command:

1. Double column, at half distance.  2. Battalion, inward—FACE.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

876. At the first command, the captains will place themselves two paces in front of their respective companies; the captains of the two centre companies will caution them to stand fast, and the other captains will caution their companies to face to the left and right, respectively.  The covering sergeants will step into the front rank.

0-877. At the same command, each chief of platoon of the companies of skirmishers will step in front of his platoon, and the captain of the first company will immediately ploy his first platoon, in close order, in front of its second, and the captain of the second company, his second platoon, in close order, in rear of its first.

878. At the second command, the fourth and fifth companies will stand fast; the others of the right wing will face to the left, and the others of the left wing will face to the right; each captain whose company has faced, will hasten to break to the rear the two files at the head of his company; the left guide of each right company, and the right guide of each left company, will each place himself at the head of its front rank, and the captain by the side of his guide.

0-879. At the same command, the first platoon column will face to the left, and the second to the right.  Each guide will place himself in front of the front-rank man of the leading file of his platoon, and each chief by the side of his guide.

880. At the command march, the fourth and fifth companies, which are to form the first division, will stand fast; the senior captain of the two will place himself before the centre of the division, and command: Guide right; the junior captain will place himself in the interval between the two companies, and the left guide of the left company will place himself in the front rank on the left of the division, as soon as he shall be able to pass.

881. All the other companies, conducted by their captains, will step off with life to arrange themselves in column at company distance, each company behind the preceding one in the column of the same wing, so that, in the right wing, the third may be next behind the fourth, the second next to the third, and so on to the right company; and, in the left wing, the sixth may be next behind the fifth, the seventh next to the sixth, and so on to the left company of the battalion.

882. The corresponding companies of the two wings will unite into divisions in arranging themselves in column; an instant before the union, at the centre of the column, the left guides of right companies will pass into the line of file closers, and each captain will command: 1. Such company; 2. Halt; 3. FRONT.

883. At the second command, which will be given at the instant of union, each company will halt; at the third, it will face to the front.  The senior captain in each division will place himself on its right, and command: Right—DRESS, and the junior captain will place himself in the interval between the two companies.  The division being aligned, its chief will command: FRONT, and take his position two paces before its centre.

0-884. At the command march, by the colonel, each platoon column conducted by its chief, will be directed diagonally to the rear, in such manner that the front rank of the first platoon of each platoon column shall be on a line six; paces in rear of the front rank of the division next to the last. The first platoon column three paces from the right, and the second platoon column three paces from the left flank of the battalion column.  The first platoon column will be dressed to the left, and the second to the right.  In case there is but one platoon on each flank, they will be established in the positions prescribed above, for the first platoons of the columns.

885. The column being thus formed, the divisions will take the respective denominations of first, second, third, &c., according to position in the column beginning at the front.

886. The lieutenant-colonel who, at the second command given by the colonel, will have placed himself at a little more than company distance in rear of the right guide of the first division, will assure the right guides on the direction as they successively arrive, by placing himself in their rear, and then take post as indicated No. 175, outside the right flank of the column.

887. The senior major will follow the movement abreast with the last company, and then take post as indicated No. 176, outside the right flank of the column.  The junior major will place himself abreast with the first platoon of the first platoon column, and six paces outside its right flank.

888. The music will pass to the rear of the column.

889. The battalion being in march to form the double column at company distance without halting the battalion, the colonel will command:

1. Double column at half distance.  2. Battalion, by the right and left flanks.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

890. At the first command, each captain will move briskly in front of the centre of his company; the captains of the fourth and fifth will caution their companies to march straight-forward, and will command: Quick time: the other captains will caution their companies to face to the right and left.

0-891. At the same command, the companies of skirmishers will execute without halting what is prescribed No. 877.  The chief of the first platoon column will caution his column to face by the left flank, and the chief of the second platoon column will caution his column to face by the right flank.

892. At the command march, the fourth and fifth companies will continue to march straight-forward; the senior captain will place himself before the centre of his division, and command: Guide right; the junior captain will place himself in the interval between the two companies.  The left guide of the fifth company will place himself on the left of the front rank of the division.  The men will take the touch of elbows to the right.  The color and general guides will retake their places.  The three right companies will face to the left, and the three left companies will face to the right.  Each captain will break to the rear two files at the head of his company; the left guides of the right companies, and the right guides of the left companies, will each place himself at the head of the front rank of his company, and the captain by the side of his guide.

893. The third and sixth companies will enter the column, and direct themselves parallelly to the first division.  Each of the other companies will, in like manner, place itself behind the company of the wing to which it belongs, and will be careful to gain as much ground as possible toward the head of the column.

894. The corresponding companies of each wing will unite into divisions on taking their positions in column, and each captain, the instant the head of his company arrives at the centre of the column, will command: 1. Such company by the right (or left) flank.  2. MARCH.  The senior captain of the two companies will  place himself in front of the centre of his division, and command: Guide right; the junior captain will place himself in the interval between the two companies.  The two companies thus formed into a division, will take the touch of elbows to the right, and when each division has gained its proper distance, its chief will cause it to march in quick time.

0-895. At the command march, by the colonel, the first platoon column will face by the left, and the second platoon column by the right flank, and they will be conducted by their chiefs as prescribed No. 884.  On arriving at their positions the platoon columns will be faced by the right and left flanks respectively, and take the quick step.

896. When the battalion presents an odd number of companies, the formation will be made in like manner, and the company on either flank which shall find itself without a corresponding one, will place itself at company distance behind the wing to which it belongs.

897. The double column, closed in mass, will be formed according to the same principles, and by the same commands, substituting the indication, closed in mass, for that of at half distance.

898. The double column never being formed when two or more battalions are to be in one general column, it will habitually take the guide to the right, sometimes to the left, or in the centre of the column; in the last case the command will be, Guide centre.  The column will march, countermarch, and change direction according to the principles prescribed for a simple column by division.

899. The double column at company distance will be closed in mass, or, if in mass, will take half distance, by the commands and means indicated for a simple column by division.

0-900. When the double column is formed closed in mass, or closes in mass from half distance, the platoon columns will then be placed so that their first platoons shall be on the same line with the division next to the last.  When the double column countermarches, the platoon columns will be countermarched by the means prescribed No. 425 and following.

REMARKS ON THE DISPOSITION OF THE COMPANIES OF SKIRMISHERS IN THE PLOYMENTS OF THE DOUBLE COLUMN.

901. When the double column advances to the attack, half the interval on the right and left flanks may be covered by skirmishers, deployed on a line with the front rank of the leading division.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

0-902. When one or more platoons of the companies of skirmishers are deployed to cover a double column, and the colonel desires their recall, but not with a view to form square, it will be executed by the commands and means prescribed No. 342.  The platoon columns will take their places as indicated No. 884.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

To ploy the battalion into division columns.

903. This movement consists in ploying the odd companies of the right, and the even companies of the left wing, in rear of the companies on their left and right respectively.

904. The colonel wishing to form the division columns at company distance, the battalion being in line, and at a halt, will command:

1. Division columns at company distance.  2. Battalion, inward face.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

905. At the first command, the captains will place themselves two paces in front of their respective companies; the captains of the even companies of the right, and the odd companies of the left wing, will caution their companies to stand fast, and the other captains, of the odd companies of the right, and of the even companies of the left wing, will caution their companies to face to the left and right respectively.  The covering sergeants will step into the front rank.

0-906. At the same command, the captains of the first and second companies of skirmishers, will caution them that they will have to face to the left and right respectively.

907. At the second command, the even companies of the right, and the odd companies of the left wing, will stand fast; the others of the right wing will face to the left, and the others of the left wing will face to the right; each captain whose company has faced, will hasten to the right, and break off files as indicated No. 111, and will then place himself, as will also the guides, in the manner prescribed No. 878.

0-908. At the same command, the first company of skirmishers will face to the left, and the second to the right; the left guide of the first will place himself on the left of the front rank, and each chief will place himself by the side of his guide.

909. At the command march, the even companies of the right, and the odd companies of the left wing will stand fast.  The captain of the right centre company will place himself on the right, and the captain of the left centre company on the left of the front rank of their respective companies: they will be covered in the rear rank by the guides. The captain of the second company will take his place in the front rank on the left of his company, and the captain of the seventh in the front rank on the right of his company; they will be covered in the rear rank by the guides.

910. All the other companies, conducted by their chiefs, will step off with life, to arrange themselves at company distance, each odd company of the right wing in rear of the even company on its left, and each even company of the left wing in rear of the odd company on its right, so that in the right wing, the first and third shall be behind the second and fourth companies, and in the left wing, the sixth and eighth shall be behind the fifth and seventh companies.  The third and sixth companies will be halted, faced to the front, and dressed to the right by the senior captain, after which the captains will take their places, two paces in front of the centre of their respective companies.  The captain of the first company will conduct it, until the left guide is abreast with the left guide of the company immediately in front, when he will halt, front, and dress his company to the left, and place himself as prescribed No. 169.  The captain of the last company will conduct it, until the right guide is abreast with the light guide of the company immediately in front, when it will be halted, faced to the front, and dressed to the right, when the chief will place himself as above indicated.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

0-911. At the command march, by the colonel, the companies of skirmishers, conducted by their respective chiefs, will file to the left and right, respectively: the first company will take post thirty paces in rear of the file closers of the rear company of the first division column, and the second company thirty paces in rear of the file closers of the rear company of the last division-column. The  companies will be halted, faced to the front, and dressed to the right and left, respectively, and the captains will place themselves two paces in front of the centre of their respective companies.

912. Division columns being thus formed, will take the respective denominations of first, second, third, fourth, according to their position in the line, beginning at the right.  If there are but seven battalion companies present, the seventh will be considered as a division column.  With a less number of companies, the movement will not be performed.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

913. The position of the colonel and junior major will be the same as prescribed Nos. 34 and 35, Title I., the distances being estimated from the file closers, in rear of the rear companies of the division columns.  The lieutenant-colonel will take post in rear of the centre of the first division column, and the senior major in rear of the centre of the last division column.  Each twelve paces from the file closers of the rear companies.  The adjutant and sergeant-major will take post as prescribed No. 36, Title I.  The music will take post in rear of the third division column, and in the manner indicated Nos. 41 and 42, Title I.

914. The battalion being in march, to form division columns without halting the battalion, the colonel will command:

1. Division columns at company distance.  2. Battalion by the right and left flanks.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

915. At the first command, each captain will move as prescribed No. 890; the captains of the even companies of the right, and of the odd companies of the left wing, will caution their companies to march straight-forward, and will command Quick time, the other captains will caution their companies to face to the left and right respectively.

0-916. At the same command, the captains of the companies of skirmishers will caution them that they will have to face by the left and right flanks respectively.

917. At the command march, the even companies of the right, and the odd companies of the left wing, will continue to march straight forward.  The captains and guides of the centre companies, and of the second and seventh, will conform to what is prescribed No. 909.  The general guides will place themselves as indicated No. 773.  The odd companies of the right wing will face to the left, and the even companies of the left wing, will face to the right; each captain, whose company has faced, will break to the rear the head of his company, and will place himself, as will also the guides, in the manner indicated No. 878.

918. The companies that have faced will each, conducted by its captain, take its place in its division column, as prescribed No. 910.  Each captain of the right wing, the instant he arrives abreast with the left guide of the leading company of his division column, and each captain of the left wing, the instant he arrives abreast with the right guide of his division column, will command: 1. Such company by the right (or left) flank.  2. MARCH.  3. Guide left (or right).  The companies will take the quick step as soon as they have attained their distances, and each captain will take post, as indicated No. 910.

0-919. At the command march by the colonel, the companies of skirmishers will face by the left and right flanks respectively; the chiefs and guides will place themselves as prescribed No. 908, and each company will be conducted by its chief, and take the position prescribed No. 911.  On arriving at their positions, the companies will be faced by the right and left flanks respectively, take the step of, and follow their respective division columns.

920. Division columns, closed in mass, will be formed according to the same principles, and by the same commands, substituting the indication closed in mass, for that of at company distance.

921. A line of division columns at company distance, will be closed in mass, and if closed in mass, will take company distance, by the commands and means prescribed for a simple column.  The column will always be closed, and distances taken, on the leading companies.

To advance in a line of division columns.

922. A line of division columns will advance, or retire, oblique, and change direction to the right or left, by the commands and means prescribed No. 648 and following, observing what follows.  In advancing, the captain on the left flank of the leading company of the first, and the captain on the right flank of the leading company of the fourth division column, will be respectively responsible, for the preservation of the distances between those columns and the adjacent ones.  When the battalion faces about for the purpose of retiring in line, the captains of the two centre companies, now leading, will place themselves in the rear rank, now in front, and on the outer flanks of their respective companies.  The captains of the leading companies of the first and last division columns, will place themselves respectively on the flanks of their companies, nearest the centre of the line, and in the rear rank, now leading; they will be responsible for the distances as above indicated.  The captains of the rear companies of the division columns, will place themselves two paces in front of the centre of their respective companies.

923. At the command forward, by the colonel, the color-bearer, with the three corporals of his guard in the rank of file closers, will place themselves in front of the leading centre companies, and opposite their places in line.  The color-bearer, with his two outer corporals, six paces in front of the file closers, the centre corporal, with the two nearest file closers, will cover them in that rank.

Passage of obstacles, advancing and retiring in line.

924. A battalion, advancing or retiring in line, encountering an obstacle supposed to cover one or more division columns, they will be broken to the rear according to the principles prescribed for breaking off companies in a deployed line, observing what follows.  The first command by the colonel will be, such a division column, or columns, obstacle.  The necessary commands for breaking off will be given by the senior captain of the column, and the leading company of the column will be closed in mass on the last company of the column behind which it marches.

925. In coming again into line, each company will be conducted by its chief diagonally to the front, and when its right file shall have arrived at the proper distance from the division column on the line, it will be filed to the right, and having prolonged itself parallel to the line, will be faced by a flank, by command of its chief, and take the step of the line.

926. When the battalion, advancing in line, is brought to the right about, and one or more division columns have previously been broken off to the rear, the colonel, should he desire to bring them back into line, will first cause them to take full distance.

0-927. At the command, Battalion forward, by the colonel, when it is desired to advance or retire in line, the chiefs and guides of the companies of skirmishers will execute what is prescribed No. 654. In advancing, and in passing obstacles, the companies of skirmishers will preserve the relative positions with the division columns, prescribed No. 911.  When, in retiring in line, the first and last division columns pass obstacles, and also when in returning into line, the companies of skirmishers will execute what is prescribed No. 779.

To form double column from a line of division columns.

928. A line of division columns being at a halt, either at half distance or closed in mass, it will form double column by the commands and means prescribed No. 875 and following, observing what follows.  At the first command by the colonel, the captains of the companies of the second and third division columns will caution them to stand fast.  At the second command, and at the command march, the second and third division columns will stand fast.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

929. A line of division columns on a march, either at half distance, or closed in mass, will form double column by the commands and means prescribed No. 889 and following, observing what follows.  At the first command by the colonel, the captains of the companies of the second and third division columns will caution them to march straight-forward, and will command: Quick time.  At the command march, the second and third division columns will continue to march straight-forward.

0-930. The companies of skirmishers will execute what has been prescribed Nos. 877, 879, 884, 891 and 895.

To form line of division columns from double columns.

931. The double column, either at half distance or closed in mass, being at a halt, to form line of division columns, the colonel will command:

1. Form line division columns.  2. Battalion, outward face.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

932. At the first command, the right and left guides of the first division will place themselves before the right and left files respectively, both faced to the right; the captains will place themselves two paces in front of the centre of their respective companies; the captains of the companies constituting the first and second divisions of the double column will caution their companies to stand fast; the other captains of the right wing will caution their companies to face to the right, and the others of the left wing will caution their companies to face to the left.  The lieutenant-colonel will place one marker at company distance from the right of the first division, and on a line with, its guides, and a second marker a little less than company distance from the first; they will face toward the division guides, and be assured in their positions by the lieutenant-colonel.  The senior major will make a like disposition with markers on the left of the column.

0-933. At the same command, the chief of the first platoon column will caution his column to face to the right, and the chief of the second platoon column will caution his column to face to the left.

934. At the second command, the first and second divisions will stand fast, and the captains and guides will place themselves as prescribed Nos. 909 and 910; the others of the right wing will face to the right, and the others of the left wing will face to the left.  Each captain whose company has faced to the right will place himself by the side of his right guide; and each captain whose company has faced to the left will place himself by the side of his left guide.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

0-935. At the same command, the platoon columns will face to the right and left respectively, and the chiefs and guides will place themselves as prescribed No. 879.

936. At the command march, the companies which form the second and third division columns will stand fast; those which form the first and fourth division columns, conducted by their respective captains, will move diagonally to the front.  [Editors Note: See Changes.]

937. The captain of the leading company of the first division column will conduct his company on the marker on the right of the first division, and the captain of the leading company of the last division column will conduct his company on the marker at the left of the first division; the other companies will take care to preserve their parallelism with the leading ones, and the guides will maintain themselves on a perpendicular with the guides of the leading companies respectively.

938. On arriving up with the marker, the captain of each leading company will halt in his own person, and let his company file past him; the leading company, first division column, will file to the right, and when its last file is abreast with the captain, he will halt the company, face it to the front, and dress it to the left on the markers.  The captain of the rear company of this same column will establish his company in rear of the first by the means just prescribed; the companies constituting the last division column will be established on the markers to the left of the first division, in a similar manner, but by inverse means.

0-939. At the command march, the platoon columns will be conducted by their respective chiefs straight-forward. When the right flank of the first platoon column has arrived on a line with the marker placed on the right of the line of battle, the column will be faced by the left or right flank, as the double column may have been, at half distance or closed in mass, and having attained its proper distance from the first division column, it will be halted and deployed on its first platoon.  The second platoon column will execute what has been prescribed for the first, but by inverse means.

940. The line being formed, the colonel will command: Guides—POSTS.  At this, the captains and guides will take posts as prescribed Nos. 909 and 910.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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