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ARTICLE II.

Column in route.

103. The column being at a halt, if the general wish to put it in march in the route step, he will give the commands prescribed for the march in the cadenced step, with this difference – the command march will be preceded by that of route step, which will be repeated by the colonels.

104. The column being in march, the general, in order to cause it to pass from the cadenced to the route step, and the reverse, will give the commands prescribed in the S. C., Nos. 315 and 317.

105. All the principles relative to columns in route having been developed in the schools of the company and battalion, it only remains to add here that, when a column of many battalions encounters a defile, which obliges it to diminish the front of subdivisions, this movement will only be made as each battalion successively arrives on the ground at which the preceding battalion had executed it.

106. Thus, for example, a column formed by company, encountering a defile which will only receive the front of a platoon, the colonel of the leading battalion will at once, or successively, according to the order of the general, diminish front by platoon: but the colonel of the next battalion will not repeat the commands of the preceding colonel until his battalion arrives at the same point, and so on of the others.

107. The chief of the column will take care to regulate the rate of the march according to the ground and other circumstances; he will always leave with the rear of the column an aide-de-camp to bring him prompt intelligence in case it find a difficulty in following.

REMARKS.

0-108. If the companies of skirmishers are in the column, the distances between the battalions will be estimated from those companies.  Each battalion succeeding the first, will get its distance by stepping short; on resuming the cadenced step, these battalions will regain their distances by an increased pace.

ARTICLE III.

To change direction in column at full distance.

109. The general, wishing to cause the column to change direction, will dispatch an aide-de-camp to the point of change, and give notice of his purpose to the leading colonel a little before arriving at that point.

110. The change of direction will be executed according to the principles prescribed in the S. B., No. 273, and following.

111. Those rules will be observed in columns in manśuvre, although marching at the moment in the route step.

ARTICLE IV.

To halt the column.

112. The general wishing to halt the column, will command:

1. Column.

113. This having been repeated, he will add:

2. Halt.

114. This will be repeated with the greatest rapidity.

115. The column being halted, if the general wish to form it to the left (or right) into line of battle, and the guides require to be assured on the direction, he will place himself fifteen or twenty paces in front of the head, facing to the rear toward the direction which he may wish to give to the guides, selecting in rear of the column the second point which determines that direction, and establishing on it, the leading guide; he will then command:

Guides, cover.

116. At this, repeated by the colonels, the lieutenant-colonels and senior majors will promptly cause the guides who may not be on the direction, to cover each other accurately.

117. The subdivision guides being established on the direction, the colonels, without waiting for each other, will immediately command: Left (or right)—DRESS.

118. At this, briskly repeated by the chiefs of subdivision, each subdivision will incline to its guide, and be promptly aligned.  If the new direction be such that a subdivision find itself many paces from it, the chief of the subdivision will cause it to march by the flank.

REMARKS.

119. As indicated in the S. B., No. 232, the subdivisions of a column will not maintain the full distance.

ARTICLE V.

To close the column to half distance, or in mass.

120. Whether the column be formed by company or by division, the distance between battalions, when the subdivisions are at half distance from each other or closed in mass, will be equal to the front of a subdivision.

1st. To close the column on the leading company.

121. A column by company, at full distance and right in front, being in march, when the general shall wish to close it to platoon distance, he will command:

1. To half distance, close column.

122. This having been repeated, the general will add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

123. At the command march, the headmost battalion will close up to platoon distance on its leading company, as prescribed in the S. B., No. 295, and following.

124. The other battalions will continue to march; when the leading company of the second battalion is at company distance from the rearmost company of the first battalion, its captain will halt it and align it by the left; the other companies of this battalion will close up on the leading one, and the following battalions will conform themselves to what is just prescribed for the second.

125. The lieutenant-colonel of the first battalion will assure the positions of the guides as prescribed in the S. B.

126. The lieutenant-colonel of each following battalion will go in advance to the point at which his leading company ought to be halted, and he will assure the positions of the guides by placing himself in rear of each, as the companies are successively closed.

127. If the column, instead of being in march, be at a halt, the general will cause it to close by the same commands.  At the word march, the leading subdivision will stand fast; all the others will put themselves in movement, and the battalions will close up as just prescribed for a column in march.

128. If the column be marching in double-quick time, it will close by the commands and means above indicated, and agreeably to the principles prescribed in the S. B.

2nd. To close the column on the rearmost company.

129. The column being at a halt, the general, if he wish to close it to half distance on the rearmost company, will command:

1. On (such company) fourth battalion, to half distance, close column. 

130. This having been repeated, each colonel will command: 1. Battalion, about—FACE; 2. Column, forward; 3. Guide right.

131. At the first command of its colonel, the battalion will face about: each guide will remain abreast with the front rank, become the rear; the rearmost company of the fourth battalion will remain faced to the front.

132. At the third command, the captains of the fourth battalion will place themselves two paces outside of their guides; those of tile other battalions will remain behind the centres of their companies.

133. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

134. At the command march, the fourth battalion will close on its rearmost company as prescribed in the S. B., No. 317 and following.

135. The other battalions will close on the fourth, and when the colonel of the third sees that the first company of the fourth battalion has only a few paces left to take, he will command: Captains on the flank of the column.  At this, the captains of the third battalion will place themselves briskly outside of their guides.  When the eighth company of this battalion is at the prescribed distance, its captain will halt it, face it to the front, and align it by the left, its guide remaining faced to the rear: the other companies will close upon this company, and the remaining battalions will each execute what is just prescribed for the third.

136. Each colonel will face his guides to the front as soon as all the companies of his battalion are aligned.

137. The lieutenant-colonel of the fourth battalion will assure the position of his guides, as indicated in the S. B., No. 324; the lieutenant-colonels of the other battalions will conform themselves to what is prescribed No. 126.

138. If the column be in march, it will be closed by the commands and means above indicated, and agreeably to the principles prescribed in the S. B.

3rd. To close the column on an interior battalion.

139. The general, wishing to close the column on the headmost company of an interior battalion, say the third, will command:

1. On the first company, third battalion, to half distance, close column.

140. This having been repeated, the colonel of each battalion in front of the third, will command: 1. Battalion, about—FACE; 2. Column, forward; 3. Guide right.  The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

141. At the command march, briskly repeated by all the colonels, the third battalion, and those in its rear, will close up as prescribed No. 123, and following, for the execution of the movement on the head of the column; the battalions in front of the third, will close as indicated No. 134 and following, for the execution of the movement on the rear of the column; the eighth company, second battalion, will close on the directing company, leaving the interval prescribed No. 120.

142. If the column be in march, the subdivision on which it is closed will halt at the command march, and the subdivisions in rear will close in the manner prescribed for closing on the head of the column, and the subdivisions in front, in the manner prescribed for closing on the rear of the column.

REMARKS.

143. A column by division will close to company distance by the same commands and means.

144. The column being at full or half distance, the general will cause it to close in mass by the same commands, substituting the indication column, close in mass, for that of to half distance, close column.

145. A column, left in front, will execute those several movements according to the same principles.  If the column closes on any subdivision in rear of the battery, this latter, before the movement commences, and upon an intimation from the general, will leave the column, and following the movement upon the flank, will resume its place in the column, when the manśuvre is finished.  The colonels of the battalions next the battery, will be careful to preserve the necessary interval, prescribed No. 216.

ARTICLE VI.

To march in column at half distance, or closed in mass.

146. A column at half distance or in mass, being at a halt, when the general shall wish to cause it to march, he will give the commands prescribed above for putting in march a column at full distance.

147. The means of direction indicated for a column at full distance will be the same for a column at half distance or in mass.

148. A column at half distance or in mass, being in march, the general will halt it by the same commands as if it were a column at full distance.

149. The column at half distance or in mass, being halted, if the general shall wish to give a general direction to the guides, he will conform to the means prescribed for a column at full distance.

ARTICLE VII.

To change direction in column at half distance.

150. A column at half distance, being in march, and having to change direction, will execute the movement as prescribed for a column at full distance, with the difference indicated in the S. B., No. 343.

ARTICLE VIII.

To change direction in column closed in mass.

1st. In marching.

151. A column closed in mass, being in march, and having to change direction, the general will cause the point at which the change has to commence, to be marked, and just before arriving at the point will command:

Change direction to the right (or left).

152. This command having been repeated the colonel of the first battalion will, on arriving at the point indicated, cause his battalion to change direction by the means prescribed in the S. B., No. 345, and following.

153. The second battalion, and successively the others, will change direction at the point where the first changed, and in the same manner.

154. If, during the march of the column, the general should wish to give a new point of direction, too near the present one to require a formal change, it will be done by the means prescribed in the S. B., No. 235.

2nd. To change direction from a halt.

155. The column being halted, when the general shall wish to place it in a new direction, without any immediate intention of advancing after such change, he will cause this movement to be executed by the flanks of subdivisions according to the principles prescribed in the S. B.

156. It will be supposed that the column has the right in front, and that it has to change direction to the left: the general, after having caused two markers to be established on the new direction for the leading subdivision, will command:

1. Change direction by the right flank.

157. This having been repeated, each colonel will command: Battalion, right—FACE.  The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

158. At this, the column will march by the right flank into the new direction in conformity with the principles prescribed in the S. B., No. 367 and following.

159. The colonels will see, pending the execution of the movement, that the files do not open out, that the subdivisions enter in a square with the new direction, and that the prescribed distance between their battalions be exactly observed.

160. The lieutenant-colonel of the leading battalion will place himself some paces in front and face to the guide of the first subdivision of the column, in order to assure the direction of the guides of his battalion; the lieutenant-colonel of each of the following battalions will place himself successively behind its left guides as they arrive on the new direction, to assure them in their positions.

161. A column in mass will change direction to the right by inverse means, and be conducted by the left flank into the new direction.

ARTICLE IX.

Being in column at half distance, of closed in mass, to take distances. 

1st. To take distances by the head of the column.

162. A column by company being at half distance and at a halt, when the general shall wish it to take distances, he will indicate to the lieutenant-colonel of the leading battalion the point of direction in front, and then command:

By the head of column, take wheeling distance.

163. This having been repeated, the first battalion will take its distances by the means indicated in the S. B., No. 387 and following.

164. Each of the other battalions will take its distances in like manner; but it will not commence its movement till the last subdivision of the battalion immediately preceding has left, besides the space equal to the front of a company, the distance of twenty-two paces.

165. If the column be in march, it will take distances according to the principles prescribed in the S. B., and by the commands above indicated.

2nd. To take distances on the rear of the column.

166. The column being at half distance, and at a halt, when the general shall wish it to take distances on the rearmost company, say the eighth company fourth battalion, he will first determine the direction of the line of battle, and direct two markers to be placed on this line as prescribed in the S. B., No. 397.  The markers being established, he will cause this line to be prolonged by one of the means indicated in the S. B., No. 229 and following, and as soon as these dispositions the made, he will command:

1. On the eighth company, fourth battalion, take wheeling distance.

167. This having been repeated, the colonels will each command: 1. Column, forward; 2. Guide left.

168. At this, the captains of the fourth battalion will place themselves on the left flank of the column; those of the other battalions will remain before the centres of their companies.

169. The lieutenant-colonel and the senior major of the first battalion, will remain in their places in column; in the other battalions each lieutenant-colonel will place himself abreast with his rearmost company, and the senior majors each abreast with his first.

170. The general will then add: 

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

171. At this, the whole column, except the directing company, will step off the lieutenant-colonel of the first battalion will take care to direct the leading guide a little within the line of battle.

172. The fourth battalion will take its distances as prescribed in the S. B., No. 398 and following.

173. When the colonel of the third sees that only one company of the fourth remains to take its distance, he will command: Captains, on the flank of the column.

174. At this, the captains will place themselves outside of their guides; the lieutenant-colonel will hasten to the point where his rearmost company ought to be halted, observing to take, between it and the first company of the fourth battalion, a distance equal to the front of a company and twenty-two paces.

175. When his rearmost company shall arrive abreast with the lieutenant-colonel, its captain will halt and align it by the left.  The other companies of the third will take their distances as prescribed for those of the fourth battalion.

176. The remaining battalions will successively execute what has just been prescribed for the third.  The lieutenant-colonel of the first will direct the march of its leading guide to the point where the rearmost company of this battalion ought to be halted, and then the senior major will replace him momentarily at the head of the column.

177. The colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and senior majors, will conform themselves to what is prescribed for each in the S. B., Nos. 405-407.

3rd. To take distances on the head of the column.

178. When the general shall wish to cause distances to be taken on the head of the column, say the first company, of the first battalion, he will direct two markers to be placed on the line of direction as prescribed in the S. B., No. 408, and cause this line to be prolonged to the rear by the means indicated in the S. B., No. 229 and following, these dispositions being made, he will command:

1. On the first company, first battalion, take wheeling distance.

179. This having been repeated, each colonel will command: 1. Battalion, about—FACE; 2. Column, forward; 3. Guide right.

180. At the third command, the captains of the first battalion will place themselves on the directing flank of the column; those of the other battalions will remain behind the centres of their companies.

181. The lieutenant-colonel of the fourth battalion will place himself abreast with his now leading company, and the senior major abreast with its rearmost one; in the other battalions the positions of the lieutenant-colonels and senior majors will be the reverse.

182. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

183. At this, the whole column, except the directing company, which has not faced about, will step off; the lieutenant-colonel of the fourth battalion, placed by the side of the guide of its now leading company, will take care to direct this guide a little within the line of battle.

184. The first battalion will take its distances in the manner indicated in the S. B., No. 409 and following.

185. When the last company but one of the first battalion shall have taken its distance, the colonel of the second will command: Captains, on the flank of the column; at the same time, the lieutenant-colonel of this battalion will go to the point at which the first company ought to be halted.

186. This company having arrived abreast with the lieutenant-colonel, its captain will halt it, face it about, and align it by the left; the other companies of this battalion will take their distances as prescribed for those of the first battalion.

187. Each remaining battalion will conform itself to what has just been prescribed for the second.  The lieutenant-colonel of the fourth will direct the march of its leading guide to the point at which its now rearmost company ought to be halted, when he will change place with the senior major.

188. The field officers will conform themselves to what is prescribed for each in the S. B., No. 417.

4th. To take distances on an interior battalion.

189. When the general shall wish to cause distances to be taken on an interior company of the column, say the first company of the third battalion, he will establish the direction in the manner indicated No. 178, and cause it to be prolonged to the front and rear; which being executed, he will command:

1. On the first company, third battalion, take wheeling distance.

190. This having been repeated, the colonel of the third, and the colonel of the following battalion, will each command: 1. Battalion, about—FACE; 2. Column, forward; 3. Guide right.  The colonels of the battalions in front of the third will each command: 1. Column, forward; 2. Guide left.

191. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

192. The third and fourth battalions will execute their movement in the manner indicated No. 180 and following, for taking distances on the head of the column, the third will conform itself to what is prescribed, in that case, for the first battalion.

193. The first and second battalions will execute the movement as prescribed No. 168 and following, for taking distances on the rear of the column.  At the commencement of the movement, the second battalion will put itself in march with the rest, and its rearmost company will be halted the moment there is between it and the first company of the third battalion, a distance equal to the front of a company, and twenty-two paces.

194. When distances are taken on an interior battalion of the column, the headmost or rearmost company of this battalion will be designated as the directing company.

195. A column in mass will take full distances by the commands and means just indicated.  When it has to take half distances, the general will substitute in the first command, the indication half for that of wheeling distance.

196. All those movements will be executed according to the same principles in a column left in front.

197. In a column by division, distances will be taken according to the same principles as in a column by company.

REMARKS ON TAKING DISTANCES.

198. When the column takes wheeling distances on any of its subdivisions, or by the head of the column, the general will first direct the battery to leave the column, and will then close the interval which it occupied, by causing the three battalions which already have subdivision intervals between them, to close to subdivision distance upon the one which is isolated; or he will close this latter upon the others.  He will then proceed to take wheeling distances, as prescribed No. 162 and following.

ARTICLE X.

Countermarch.

199. A column, right in front, being at full or half distance, w hen the general shall wish to cause it to execute the countermarch, he will command:

1. Countermarch.

200. This being repeated by all the colonels, each will immediately command: 1. Battalion, right—FACE; 2. By file left.

201. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

202. At this, briskly repeated, all the subdivisions of the column will execute the countermarch, as prescribed in the S. B.

203. With the left in front, the countermarch will be executed according to the same principles.

Countermarch of a column closed in mass.

204. When a column in mass has to execute the countermarch, the general will command:

1. Countermarch.

205. This being briskly repeated by all the colonels, each will immediately command: 1. Battalion, right and left—FACE; 2. By file, left and right.

206. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

207. At this, briskly repeated, the subdivisions will put themselves in movement, and the countermarch will be executed as prescribed in the S. B., No. 426 and following.

ARTICLE XI.

Being in column by company, to form divisions.

208. The column being by company, right in front, and at a halt, when the general shall wish divisions to be formed, he will command:

1. Form divisions.

209. This being repeated by the colonels, each will immediately command: Left companies, left—FACE.

210. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH). 

211. At this, briskly repeated, the movement will be executed as prescribed in the S. B.

212. Each colonel will command: Guides—POSTS, as soon as the divisions of his battalion are formed.

213. If the left be in front, the general will give the same commands, and the colonels will conform themselves to what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 455.

214. If the column is in march, divisions will be formed by the commands and means above indicated, and in conformity with the principles prescribed in the S. B.

REMARKS ON THE POSITION OF THE BATTERY IN THE COLUMN.

215. In marching in advance in the cadenced step, the battery of the brigade will take post directly in rear of its leading battalion.  Marching in retreat, the battery will be posted directly in advance of its rearmost battalion.  The pieces, in these cases, will in column, be formed four abreast.

216. Before putting a column, either by division, or company closed in mass, or at half distance, in march, the general, after giving the command: Column, forward, will cause the leading, or three leading battalions, as the march is in advance, or retreat, to move forward, the distance of sixty, or one hundred paces, as the column may be by division, or company, in order that the battery may take its position in the column.  The interval thus formed for the battery will be one hundred and forty paces.

217. In marching, in the route step, the battery will take post in rear of the column.

POSITION OF THE CAVALRY.

218. When in column, the cavalry will take such position either in front, flank, or rear, as the general may direct.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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