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PART FOURTH.

DIFFERENT MODES OF PASSING FROM THE ORDER IN COLUMN TO ORDER IN BATTLE.

ARTICLE I.

Manner of determining the line of battle.

219. The different manners of determining the line of battle have been explained in the S. B.

ARTICLE II.

Mode of passing from column at full distance into line of battle.

To the left (or right) into line of battle.

220. The column being supposed to have the right in front, when the general shall wish to form it to the left into line, he will first assure the direction of the guides by one of the means prescribed No. 115, and following; which being executed, he will command:

1. Left into line, wheel.

221. This having been repeated by the colonels, the right guide of the company at the head of each battalion will place himself on the direction of the left guides, in conformity with what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 465; the general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

222. At this, briskly repeated, the column will form to the left into line of battle, and the moment it is formed the general will command:

3. Guides—POSTS.

223. At this, the guides will take their places in line of battle.

224. A column, left in front, will form to the right into line of battle according to the same principles.

By inversion, to the right (or left) into line of battle.

225. If circumstances require that a column, right in front, should form to the right into line of battle, the general, without occupying himself with rectifying the right guides of the column, will command:

1. By inversion, right into line, wheel.

226. At this, the lieutenant-colonel and the left guide of every company at the head of a battalion, will conform themselves to what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 485.

227. The colonels having repeated the above command, will each immediately give this: Battalion, guide right; the lieutenant-colonels and senior majors will rectify, with the utmost promptitude, the direction of the right guides of their respective battalions, without occupying themselves with the general direction of the column: and as soon as these dispositions are made, the general will add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

228. At this, briskly repeated, each battalion will wheel up into line in conformity to what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 486.

229. The line being formed, the general will command:

3. Guides—POSTS.

230. If, with the left in front, it be necessary to form the column to the left into line of battle, the movement will be executed according to the same principles.

231. If the general should desire to march forward without halting the line formed from the column on march, it will be executed in accordance with the commands and means prescribed in the S. B.

Successive Formations.

232. In the successive formations, the lieutenant-colonel of each subordinate battalion will always precede it on the line of battle, and establish a marker at the point where the right or left of his leading subdivision is to rest.  He will take care to leave between this marker and the next battalion already established on the line, the interval of twenty-two paces, and then place a second marker on the line at a little less than subdivision distance from the first.  The moment the lieutenant-colonel detaches himself, he will be replaced at the head of his column by the senior major.

233. As soon as the color subdivision of each battalion arrives on the line of battle, the color-bearer will step out and place himself opposite to his file on the alignment of the guides already established on that line, taking care to hold up his lance perpendicularly between his eyes.

234. As soon as there shall be two colors on the line of battle, the colonels will command: Guides—POSTS, after the last subdivision of their battalions is established on that line; but the color-bearers will remain in front until the entire line is formed.  The general will then command: Colors—POSTS.

235. The lieutenant-colonels will assure with the utmost care the markers of their respective battalions on the line of battle, taking the colors as the basis of alignment as soon as there are two established on that line, and then assure with equal precision the direction of the following guides and color-bearer as they successively common the line of battle.

236. Each colonel, after ordering in his guides, will cause his battalion to order arms.

ARTICLE III.

Different modes of passing from column at half distance into line of battle.

 

1. To the left (or right)

2. On the right (or left)

3. Forward, by deployment,

4. Faced to the rear,

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into line of battle.

1st. Column at half distance, to the left (or right), into line of battle.

237. A column at half distance having to form to the left (or right) into line of battle, the general will first cause it to take distances on the subdivision he may choose to designate, by the means prescribed No. 162 and following; which being executed, he will form the column into line of battle as indicated No. 220 and following.

238. The general, when he judges it necessary, may order each battalion to form itself into line of battle as it shall successively have its distances, without waiting for the battalions engaged in the execution of this preliminary movement.

239. If the column be in march, and it be necessary to form rapidly into line of battle, the general will cause it to be executed by the commands, and according to the principles prescribed in the S. B., No. 493 and following.

2nd. Column at half distance, on the right (or on the left), into line of battle.

240. A column by company, right in front, being in march, when the general shall wish to form it on the right into line of battle, he will first determine the direction of that line, and then indicate to the lieutenant-colonel of the first battalion the point where the right is to rest; this officer will immediately detach himself with two markers, and establish them as indicated in the S. B., No. 501.

241. If the direction of the line of battle be not parallel, or nearly so, to that of the column, the general, a little in advance, will take care to direct the march of the leading subdivision parallelly to that line, by the means indicated in the S. B., No. 525, so that its guide, after turning to the right, may have at least ten paces to take in order to come upon it.

242. These dispositions being made, when the general shall wish the movement to commence, he will command: On the right, into line.

243. This having been repeated by the colonels, each will add: Battalion, guide right.

244. The leading subdivision having arrived opposite to the marker placed at the point d’appui will turn to the right, and the formation into line of battle will be executed as prescribed in the S. B., No., 505 and following.

245. When the lieutenant-colonel of the second battalion sees the last subdivision of the first turn to the right, in order to move upon the line, he will detach himself with two markers, whom he will establish on the direction of the guides of the first battalion.

246. The leading subdivision of the second battalion having arrived opposite to the first marker, will turn to the right at the command of its captain, who will halt it three paces from the line of battle, and align it by the right against the two markers, placed in advance by the lieutenant-colonel.

247. The following battalions will execute their movement as just prescribed for the second.

248. The line being formed, the general will command: Colors—POSTS.

249. At this, the color-bearers will return to their places in line of battle.

250. The general, placed at the point d’appui, will see that the colors of the two right battalions place themselves correctly on the direction which he may have determined for the line of battle.

251. The field officers will conform themselves, pending the formation into line of battle of their respective battalions, to what has been prescribed in the S. B., Nos. 519-520.

252. A column, left in front, will be formed on the left, into line of battle, according to the same principles.

253. If the general should wish to commence firing pending the execution of the movement, he will give an order to that effect, and the several battalions will successively conform themselves to what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 528.  This rule is general for all successive formations.

3rd. Column at half distance, forward into line of battle.

254. When a column at half distance, right in front, shall arrive behind the right of the line on which it has to form line of battle, the general will first determine the direction of that line, either at right angles, or oblique with the direction of the column, and then indicate to the lieutenant-colonel of the leading battalion the point at which the right ought to rest; this officer will immediately detach himself with two markers, and establish them on the direction indicated, as explained in the S. B., No. 501.

255. The head of the column having arrived at three paces from the line of battle, the general will halt the column, cause the colonel of the first to establish his battalion perpendicular to the line, if not already so, and then command:

1. Forward into line.

256. This having been repeated, the colonel of the first battalion will command: Column, close in mass; the other colonels will each command: 1. Battalion, guide right; 2. Head of column to the left.

257. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

258. At this, briskly repeated, the first battalion will close in mass, and then deploy on its first subdivision, by the means prescribed in the S. B., No. 560 and following.

259. The remaining battalions will march in column, by battalion, toward the line of battle; to this end, the leading subdivision of each will break from the general column by a wheel to the left, and then direct itself diagonally forward, so as to arrive opposite to the point d’appui of its battalion, but distant from this point at least the depth of the battalion in column.

260. The head of each of these battalions, having arrived opposite its point d’appui, will turn to the right, in order to advance in a square with the line of battle, and when it shall be about three paces from that line, the colonel will close his column in mass, and deploy it on its first subdivision.  If it is the wish of the general that the battalions shall remain in column, after arriving on the line, he will so direct the colonels.

261. The line being formed, the general will command:

Colors—POSTS.

262. If the general should wish to form forward, into line without halting, he will cause the line to he marked in advance, and the movement will be executed according to the commands and means prescribed No. 255 and following, and the principles indicated S. B.  Should he wish to continue the march without halting, the line will not be marked in advance, and the movement will be executed in conformity with the principles prescribed in the same school.

REMARKS ON FORMING FORWARD, INTO LINE OF BATTLE.

263. The precision of this movement depends on the diagonal direction taken by the battalions in passing from the general column toward the line of battle; the better to assure this direction, the general, colonels, and lieutenant-colonels will observe the following rules.

264. Before beginning the movement, the general will charge two aides-de-camp to determine the points d’appui on the line of battle for the right flanks of the different battalions, which will be executed as follows.

265. The first aide will gallop to battalion distance, and twenty-two paces from the general, placed at the point d’appui, and face to him; the general will, by signal of the sword, align him on the point of direction to the left.  The second aide will gallop at the same time to a like distance behind the first, face to the right, and align himself on the first aide and the general.

266. The two aides being thus established on the line of battle, the general will cause the movement to commence; the second battalion will direct itself on the first aide, and the third on the second; when the lieutenant-colonel of the second battalion arrives on the line, the first aide will gallop to battalion distance, and twenty-two paces behind the second aide, and align himself on the latter, and the color to the right; the colonel of the fourth will immediately direct his battalion on this aide.  Accordingly, it will be seen that the two aides will thus in turn place themselves one behind the other at battalion distance, and an interval of twenty-two paces, as soon as the lieutenant-colonel of the battalion, which directs itself on either, comes to replace him.  The aides-de-camp will be careful to place themselves accurately on the line of battle, and at the true distance from each other.

267. From the commencement of the movement, the general, or the officer he may substitute, will place himself at the point d’appui, as in the formation on the right, into line of battle, and for the like purpose.

268. Every colonel will hold himself abreast with his leading company on the directing flank, pending the march of his battalion toward the line of battle; and when the battalion begins to form, he will conform himself to what is prescribed in the S. B., No. 590.

269. Each lieutenant-colonel will detach himself, in order to take the place of the aide-de-camp on the line of battle, when the head of his battalion is at about one hundred and forty paces from that line, and he will then discharge the functions, pending the formation of his battalion, which have been prescribed in the S. B., No. 520.

270. A column, left in front, arriving behind the left of the line of battle, will form forward on that line, according to the same principles and by inverse means.

4th. Column at half distance faced to the rear, into line of battle.

271. When a column at half distance, right in front, arrives in front of the right of the line on which it has to form in order of battle, the general will first determine the direction of that line, and indicate to the lieutenant-colonel of the headmost battalion the point d’appui for its right; this officer will immediately detach himself with two markers, and establish them on the direction indicated, as explained in the S. B., No. 501.

272. The head of the column having arrived at about company distance from the markers, the general will halt the column, and cause the leading subdivision to be marched and dressed against the markers, in the manner indicated in the S. B., No. 532.  He will then command:

1. Into line, faced to the rear.

273. This having been repeated, the colonel of the first will immediately command: Battalion right—FACE; the colonels of the following battalions will each command: 1. Battalion, guide left; 2. Head of the column to the right.

274. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

275. This being briskly repeated, the first battalion will form into line of battle, faced to the rear, as prescribed in the S. B., No. 536 and following.

276. The remaining battalions will march in column, by battalion, toward the line of battle; to this end, the leading subdivision of each will break from the general column by a wheel to the right, and the battalion will then direct itself toward the line of battle, as in the formation forward, into line.

277. The head of each of these battalions having arrived opposite its point d’appui, will turn to the left, in order to advance in a square with the line of battle; and when at about company distance from that line, on which the lieutenant-colonel will have established two markers, as indicated No. 232, the colonel will halt his battalion, and cause it to form faced to the rear, into line of battle, by the means and commands prescribed in the S. B., No. 531 and following.

278. The line being formed, the general will command:

3. Colors—POSTS.

279. The general, colonels, and lieutenant-colonels, will conform themselves to what is prescribed No. 267 and following.

280. A column, left in front, arriving before the left of the line of battle, will be formed faced to the rear, into line of battle, according to the same principles and by inverse means.

281. If the general should wish to form into line faced to the rear, without halting, he will cause the line to be marked in advance, and the movement will be performed according to the commands and means prescribed No. 272 and following, and the principles indicated in the school of the battalion.

ARTICLE IV.

Column closed in mass, forward into line of battle, or into line faced to the rear.

282. A column closed in mass, will be formed forward into line, or into line faced to the rear, by the commands and means prescribed for a column at half distance, observing what follows.  If the movement is forward into line, at the first command by the general, the colonel of the first battalion will command: On the first (or last) (subdivision) deploy column; the other colonels, will each command: 1. Guide, right (or left).  2. Battalion, left (or right) wheel.

ARTICLE V.

Formations into line of battle, composed of two movements.

283. Habitually, and especially in the presence of the enemy, the formations will be made on the head of the column.

284. When, from peculiar circumstances, it is found necessary to form a column, which is at half distance, or closed in mass, right or left in front, either faced to the front or rear into line, on any battalion, other than that at the head of the column, the formation will be executed by the union of two movements, as will be explained.

285. In the first case, or faced to the front, the battalion on which the movement is made, and those in its rear, will form forward into line of battle; the other battalions will countermarch, and form faced to the rear into line of battle.

286. In the second case, the column having to form faced to the rear of the column, the battalion on which the movement is made, and those which follow, will form faced to the rear into line of battle, the other battalions will countermarch, and form forward into line of battle.

287. These movements will be executed by the commands and means already explained, observing what follows.  The general, before commencing the movement, will cause the battalions in front of the line to be countermarched.

ARTICLE VI.

Columns closed in mass.

Deployment by battalion in mass.

288. The brigade column in mass, may be formed into line of battle by deployment: 1st. Faced to the front; 2nd. Faced to the rear; 3rd. Faced to the left; 4th. Faced to the right; 5th. Oblique to the front or rear.

1st. Faced to the front.

289. The general, wishing to deploy the column faced to the front, will first determine the direction of the line of battle, and cause it to be marked by one of the means already indicated, taking care, if the column be in march, to cause a mounted officer to be placed on that line, at the point where the head of the column ought to arrive.

290. If the column be at a halt, the general before deploying it, will establish it perpendicularly to the line of battle, if it be not already so by the means indicated No. 149, or No. 155 and following; if the column be in march, he will direct it on the point marked as above, but so that it may arrive perpendicularly to the line of battle, and he will halt it at three paces from that line.

291. The column being thus established, the general will cause it to deploy by battalion in mass, on whatever battalion he may choose to designate, say the first.  He will place on the line of battle two markers, the first before the right, and the second before the left file of the headmost division, and then order a mounted officer to go beyond the point at which the left battalion will arrive, and to place himself exactly on the prolongation of the basis of the alignment.

292. These dispositions being made, the general will command:

1. By battalion, in mass, in the first battalion, deploy column.

293. This having been repeated, the colonel of the first battalion will caution it to stand fast.  The colonel of the second will command: Battalion, left—FACE.  The other colonels will each command: 1. Guide right.  2. Battalion, left wheel.

294. The general will then add:

2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

295. At the command march, briskly repeated, the movement will commence; the colonel of the first will command: Right—DRESS; at which the first division will dress up against the markers, and be aligned by the right.  At the same time, the guides of the other divisions will cover each other accurately, each following guide taking the distance of six paces from the guide immediately preceding; the senior major will establish them promptly on the direction, and as soon as they are assured in their positions, each chief will align his division by the right.  The chief of the first division, after having commanded front, instead of placing himself before its centre, will remain on the right of the front rank, and the right guide will fall back to the rear rank.

296. The second battalion will march straight-forward, and when it arrives opposite its place, it will be faced by the right flank, and moved on the line; the others will march in column by battalion, toward the line of battle, directing themselves as prescribed No. 259.

297. The instant the movement commences, the senior major of the second battalion will place himself twenty-two paces from the left flank of the column, to mark the point at which the battalion will face to the right in order to advance upon the line of battle.

298. The lieutenant-colonel of the second, at the commencement of the movement, and the lieutenant-colonels of the other battalions as indicated No. 269, will establish two markers on the line of battle, the right marker of each succeeding battalion, at twenty-two paces from the left of the preceding battalion.

299. After changing direction, for the purpose of marching in a square with the line, the right guide of the first division of each of the battalions, other than the first, will so direct himself, as to bring the right file opposite to the first marker, and when the head of the battalion is at three paces from the line of battle, the colonel will halt it, and command: Right—DRESS.  At this command, each battalion will be aligned by the right, in the manner indicated for the first battalion.

300. The colonels will place themselves opposite the centre of the flanks of their battalions respectively, and on the side of the present guides.

301. The deployment being ended, the general will command:

3. Guides—POSTS.

302. At this, the markers, placed before the masses, will retire.

303. If the general should wish to form faced to the front into line without halting, he will cause the line to be marked in advance, and the movement will be executed according to the commands and means prescribed No. 292 and following, and by the principles indicated in the S. B.  Should he wish to continue the march without halting, the line will not be marked in advance, and the movement will be executed in conformity with the principles prescribed in the same school.

304. If, instead of deploying the column on the first battalion, the general shall wish to deploy it on the fourth, he will begin by causing the dispositions prescribed, No. 289 and following, to be made, and then order a mounted officer to place himself on the line of battle a little beyond the point at which the right battalion will arrive; this officer will establish himself exactly on the prolongation of the markers placed before the head of the column.

305. The general will then command:

1. By battalion in mass, on the fourth battalion, deploy columns.  2. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

306. At the first command, the colonel of the fourth battalion will caution it to stand fast.  The colonels of the first and second will each command: Battalion, right—FACE.  The colonel of the third will command: 1. Guide left.  2. Battalion, rig at wheel.

307. At the command march, the first three battalions will put themselves in movement; the first division of the first battalion, conducted by the lieutenant-colonel, will direct itself a little within the line of battle and parallelly to that line; the other battalions will execute their movements in conformity with the principles prescribed No. 296 and following.

308. The colonel of the fourth, seeing his battalion nearly unmasked, will command: 1. Column forward.  2. Guide left.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

309. At the command march, which will be given the moment the battalion is unmasked, the colonel will conduct it toward the line of battle, and when at three paces from that line, he will halt it and align it by the left.  The chief of the first division will then shift to the right as prescribed No. 295.

310. When the left file, first division, first battalion, is abreast with the marker, which has been placed by the lieutenant-colonel on the line the colonel will command: 1. Battalion.  2. Halt.  3. Front.  4. Left dress; and the battalion will be dressed as prescribed No. 295.

311. The movement being ended, the general will command:

3. Guides—POSTS.

312. Should the general wish to continue the march without halting, the line will not be marked in advance, and the movement will be executed in conformity with the principles prescribed in the S. B.

313. According to the same principles, the deployment may be made on an interior battalion of the column.  The general, after having established two markers before the head of the column, will order two mounted officers to place themselves respectively a little beyond the points at which the right and left battalions will arrive.

314. These different movements will be executed according to the same principles in a column with the left in front.

315. In the preceding examples the line of battle has been established in front of the head of the column; the general may also establish it in front of any interior battalion, and then deploy the column on this battalion, or on any other that he may judge proper.

316. It will be supposed that the line of battle ought to be established in front of the third, and that it is intended to deploy on this battalion: the general will cause two markers to be placed before the first division of the designated battalion, and order two mounted officers to place themselves, respectively, a little beyond the points at which the right and left battalions will arrive; he will then command:

1. Line of battle on the third battalion.

317. This having been repeated, the first and second battalions, which are in front of the line of battle, will face by the rear rank; which being executed, the general will add:

2. By battalion in mass, on the third battalion; deploy column.  3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).

318. At the second command, the colonel of the third will caution his battalion to stand fast.  The colonels of the second and fourth will each command: Battalion left—FACE.  The colonel of the first will command: 1. Guide right.  2. Battalion, left wheel.

319. At the command march, the deployment will commence, the colonel of the third will align his battalion by the left.  The other battalions will regulate themselves in conformity with the principles prescribed No. 295 and following.  The markers, placed in the line by the lieutenant-colonels, to mark the places where the battalions which have faced by the rear rank are to cross the line of battle, will be a little more than a division distance apart, in order that the battalions can pass.

320. The battalions which have faced by the rear rank, will cross the line of battle between the markers, and when the first division of each battalion has passed the line three paces, the colonel, who will have remained in front of that line, will halt the battalion, and face it by the front rank; the two guides of the first division, and the covering sergeant of its left company, will place themselves on the line of battle, and will be assured in their positions by the lieutenant-colonel; which being executed, the colonel will cause the battalion to be aligned by the left.

321. The movement ended, the general will command:

4. Guides—POSTS.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.


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