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740. A line threatened by cavalry, and without time to form squares disposed in echelon, will be formed into oblique squares by battalion in the following manner: The general will command:
1. Oblique square by battalion. 2. On the first division, form square.
741. At the second command, the colonel of each battalion will immediately form his battalion into oblique square on its first division, by the commands and means prescribed in the S. B. No. 1167 and following.
742. The formation of battalions into oblique squares, on the left division of each, will be executed according to the same principles, and by inverse means.
743. In the preceding example the line was supposed to be deployed; but if it be formed of battalions already in columns with deploying intervals, the desired obliquity will be established by causing each battalion to change direction by the flank; to this end, the general will command:
1. To form oblique squares by battalion. 2. Change direction by the right (or left) flank.
744. At the second command, the lieutenant-colonel of each battalion will trace the new direction as prescribed in the S. B., No. 1175. Pending this operation, each colonel will give the commands, and make the preparatory dispositions for a change of direction by the flank, and cause it to be executed as soon as the new direction is traced. The change of direction having been executed, he will cause the square to be formed.
745. A column at full distance may be formed into oblique squares by the same means: each battalion will be closed to half distance on its headmost subdivision; which being executed, the battalion will change direction, as has just been prescribed, and then form square.
To re-form the line.
746. The line being disposed in oblique squares, when the general shall wish to re-form it, he will cause the squares to break; to this end, he will command:
1. Reduce squares.
747. At this, briskly repeated, each colonel will cause his square to break. Pending the execution of the movement, the general will place himself in front of the square he may judge the most conveniently situated to become the directing battalion, say the third; he will place two markers in the direction he may wish to give to the line, and cause it to be prolonged to the right and left, by the means prescribed No. 291.
748. These dispositions being made, the general will command:
1. Form line of battle at (such) intervals. 2. The third the battalion of direction. 3. MARCH (or double quick—MARCH).
749. At the second command, each colonel will give the commands indicated No. 421. The lieutenant-colonels will execute what is prescribed No. 423.
750. At the command march, briskly repeated, the movement will be executed as prescribed No. 422.
751. The movement being ended the general will command:
752. If the formation is in two lines, the battalions of the second line will form oblique squares on the positions they occupy, at the same time as those of the first line.
REMARK ON OBLIQUE SQUARES.
753. The formation of a line into oblique squares, gives the facility of placing it, whatever be its extent, as promptly in safety against the attacks of the cavalry, as if it were a single battalion, without causing the line to quit the position it occupies, and then, after re-forming each square into column, the line may be marched in any direction. The fires of oblique squares also cross each other in every direction, except that of the squares themselves, and this even when the battalions, before being formed into squares, happened not to be on the same alignment.
REMARKS ON THE DISPOSITION OF THE ARTILLERY WITH THE SQUARES.
754. If a cavalry charge is threatened, the battery will take up such positions as most effectively to fire upon the enemy, and at the same time avoid the fire of the squares. It may be found expedient, to concentrate all the pieces near the interior of the angle of the square nearest the enemy; or, the battery may be divided, and placed near the interior angles of the two squares of the first line, or between the lines.
755. As soon as the pieces are in battery the ammunition pouches will be filled, and the limbers and caissons sent to the rear of the second line.
756. If the gunners are driven from their pieces, they will take refuge in the nearest square. As soon as the charge is repulsed, they will immediately return to their pieces, and open fire upon the enemy.
END OF EVOLUTIONS OF A BRIGADE.
EVOLUTIONS OF A CORPS D’ARMÉE.
General principles for the evolutions of a corps d’armée.
1. THE evolutions of a brigade comprehending all the principles and details of the movements which should be made by a single brigade, it only remains to apply these principles to a corps d’armée.
2. In this instruction, a division of the line will be supposed to consist of three brigades, and in every line of battle composed of more than one of these divisions, they will be posted from right to left in the order of their numbers.
3. For the illustration of this instruction, a corps d’armée, consisting of nine brigades, will be supposed, but the rules herein prescribed are equally applicable to a division of the line, or to two or more brigades.
Posts of the general-in-chief, of the major-generals and brigadier-generals in line and in column.
4. In line of battle the general (that is the particular general-in-chief) will have no fixed position; he will go wherever he may judge his presence necessary.
5. In column, he will hold himself habitually at its head, in order to direct it according to his views.
6. In the evolutions, he will place himself at the point whence he can best direct the general execution of the movement.
7. In all cases the general may repair wherever he may judge his presence necessary, taking care to leave in his habitual position the next in command, or the chief of his staff, charged with the execution of his orders.
8. In line of battle, major-generals (generals of division) will place themselves at about one hundred and ten paces in rear of the centres of their divisions.
9. In column they will hold themselves on the directing flank, abreast with the centres of their divisions, and at sixty paces from the guides.
10. Brigadier-generals (generals of brigade) will place themselves as prescribed in the E. B., Nos. 3 and 4.
11. Major-generals, will look to the exact and regular execution and transmission of all signals or notifications from the general, and commands or instructions given by themselves pursuant thereto; accordingly, they may repair wherever they may judge their presence necessary, within the extent of their divisions.
12. Brigadier-generals will look to the exact and regular execution of all signals, notifications, or commands coming from their major-generals, and to all commands given by themselves pursuant thereto; accordingly, they may repair wherever they may deem their presence necessary, within the extent of their brigades.
General rules for commands.
13. In corps d’armée, the evolutions and movements will be executed by means of signals, bugle sounds, and commands.
14. When the general shall wish a movement to be executed, he will send staff officers to notify the generals of division of the nature of the movement, or, he may make use of telegraphic signals to the same end. Each major-general will, then, by staff officers, immediately notify the brigadier-generals of his command of the movement to be made.
15. The general will then cause the attention to be sounded, which will be briskly repeated by the buglers of the major-generals, and, at which the generals of brigade will each immediately give by word of mouth the general commands relating to the manœuvre, and applicable to his brigade.
16. The final command, or that which determines the execution of the general movement, will always be given by the general, who to that end will cause the signal of execution to be sounded, which signal will be briskly repeated by the bugles of the major-generals.
17. The command of execution, signified by the sound, will be immediately given by the generals of brigade, and briskly repeated by the colonels, and, if necessary, by the lieutenant-colonels and majors, as prescribed in the E. B., No. 12.
18. In case the generals of division or brigade have not been notified of a movement previous to the signal of attention, the signal of execution which follows, will indicate that the command is to advance to the front, in the then order of formation. The generals of brigade will give the preparatory command for forward, immediately after the signal of attention, and at the signal of execution, they will command march.
19. If during the march the general should wish to halt his command without having previously notified the generals of division, he will cause the signal of execution only, to be sounded, at which the generals of brigade will immediately halt their brigades. This rule is general.
20. When a line has to execute a central movement, the general will repair to the position which he may have selected as the point d’appui, and inform the generals of division of the manœuvre, as prescribed No. 14.
21. In column, commands will be extended by repetition, according to the same principles.
22. As often as a line breaks into several columns, the senior general officer, or colonel, in each, will discharge the duties attributed above to the general, or general-in-chief; but commands will not be given by signals or bugle sound, unless the column consists of more than one brigade.
To open and to close ranks.
Loading at will and the firings.
To cause the line to rest.
23. The general wishing the movements prescribed by the above articles to be executed, will cause the generals of division to be informed of his intention, who will, in turn, notify their generals of brigade. The general will then cause the signal of attention to be sounded, at which each general of brigade will give the preparatory commands appropriate for the movement, as prescribed in the E. B.
24. The general will then cause the signal of execution to be sounded, when the generals of brigade will give the command which the signal indicates, and cause it to be executed as prescribed in the E. B.
DIFFERENT MODES OF PASSING FROM THE ORDER IN BATTLE TO THE ORDER IN COLUMN.
To break to the front, to the right or left into column.
25. The movements prescribed by the above-named article, will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
26. In breaking to the right (or left), to march to the left (or light), each general of brigade after the leading one, will take care to move his brigade, so that there shall be between the leading subdivision of his headmost battalion, and the rearmost subdivision in the preceding brigade, the distance of a subdivision and one hundred and fifty paces, in case the battery of his brigade moves in its rear.
27. When the column is at full distance, and the brigade batteries; move within the columns of their respective brigades, in rear of the leading or three leading battalions, the distance between the leading subdivision of one brigade, and the rearmost subdivision of the one preceding, will be the length of a subdivision, and fifty paces if the column be formed by company, and a subdivision and ninety paces if the column be by division.
28. These distances in column between the brigades, will result from the leading or three leading battalions, having moved forward to admit the battery, as prescribed in the E. B., No. 216.
To break to the rear by the right or left into column.
29. The line will be broken to the rear, according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
To ploy the line into column or in mass.
30. The general wishing to ploy the line, will cause the movement to be executed by the commands and means prescribed Nos. 23 and 24. Each general of brigade, at the signal of attention, will give the necessary preparatory commands for ploying in a proper manner his brigade as if by itself.
31. At the signal of execution, the ployments in each brigade will commence, and be executed simultaneously, and as soon as each brigadier has finished the ployment of his brigade, he will conduct it by the shortest route to its proper position in the general column.
32. To this end, those brigade columns whose places in the general column are in rear of the brigade of formation, may respectively be faced by the rear rank before commencing the march for positions in that column.
33. If the brigade batteries are not in their respective columns, the distance between the leading subdivision of one brigade, and the rearmost subdivision of the brigade just in front of it, will be one hundred and fifty paces, whether the column be by company, or division, at half distance, or closed in mass.
34. If, however, the batteries are in the columns, the distance between the leading subdivision of one brigade, and the rearmost subdivision of the preceding brigade will be fifty paces, if the column is by company, and ninety paces, if the column is by division, and this, whether the column be at half distance, or closed in mass.
35. The major-generals will send staff officers in time, to mark the distance which should separate the brigades of their divisions when in column.
To march in column at full distance.
Column in route.
To change direction in column at full distance.
To halt the column and to align it.
36. The movements prescribed in the above-named articles, will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
37. If in column in route, the pieces of the batteries are not able, owing to the narrowness of the way, to march four abreast, the distance heretofore prescribed between brigades in column at full distance, will not be sufficient for the battery. A proper interval, however, for each battery must be obtained, and when the cadenced step is resumed, each battery will form as prescribed in the E. B., No. 215, and the brigades will close up to their proper distances as prescribed No. 26.
To close to half distance or in mass.
1st. To close the column on the leading subdivision.
2nd. To close the column on the rearmost subdivision.
3rd. To close the column on an interior brigade.
38. These movements will be executed according to the principles prescribed in the E. B., and by the means indicated Nos. 23 and 24. The proper distances to be taken between brigades, are prescribed Nos. 33 and 34.
39. If necessary, the generals of brigade at the signal of attention, will with reference to their batteries, conform to what is prescribed in the E. B., No. 145.
To march in column at half distance, or closed in mass.
To change direction in column at half distance.
To change direction in column closed in mass.
1st. In marching.
2nd. From a halt.
40. The movements prescribed by the above-named articles, will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
41. In changing direction from a halt, each brigade after the leading one, will change direction by wheeling by its head out of the general column, and by being conducted by its brigadier-general to its new position in column.
Being in column at half distance, or closed in mass, to take distances.
1st. To take distances by the head of the column.
2nd. To take distances on the rear of the column.
3rd. To take distances on the head of the column.
4th. To take distances on an interior column.
42. The movements prescribed by the above-named articles, will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
43. Prior to executing either of these movements however, the general will cause what is prescribed in the E. B., No. 198, to be executed by each brigade of the column. After the distances are taken, the batteries will be ordered into the column by their respective generals of brigade, the colonels of the battalions having had care to leave for the batteries the proper intervals.
Being in column by company, to form divisions.
44. The movements prescribed by the above-named articles, will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23 and 24.
DIFFERENT MODES OF PASSING FROM THE ORDER IN COLUMN TO THE ORDER IN BATTLE.
Manner of determining the line of battle.
45. The different modes of determining the line of battle have been explained in the E. B.
Mode of passing from column at full distance into line of battle.
To the left (or right) into line of battle.
Different modes of passing from column at half distance into line of battle.
1. To the left (or right)
2. On the right (or left)
3. Forward, by deployment,
4. Faced to the rear,
into line of battle.
Column closed in mass forward into line of battle.
Formation into line of battle composed of two movements.
46. All the movements prescribed by the above-named articles will be executed according to the principles prescribed in the E. B., and by the means indicated Nos. 23-24, the general having first determined the line of battle.
47. In the formation forward, or faced to the rear into line of battle, each brigade, other than the one of formation, will break by its head from the general column, and be conducted so that its leading battalion shall occupy its proper place in line. The brigadier-general will then deploy his brigade on the line as required.
48. In the successive formations in line, the general will send a staff officer to mark the point where the flank of each brigade which is nearest the one of formation ought to rest. This rule is general, whether the battalions are to be deployed or remain in mass.
REMARKS ON THE FORMATION IN LINE.
49. Habitually, the brigades will be formed on the line of battle in their proper order, viz,: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, &c., &c.
50. If, however, the general should deem it expedient to form line at once on the head of the column, and at the same time it is necessary to prolong the line both to the right and left, he may direct the brigades to be formed to the right and left of the point d’appui, without regard to the order of their numbers.
51. In this case, the brigades composing the divisions of the line being separated, the major-generals will be assigned commands temporarily by the general.
COLUMNS CLOSED IN MASS.
Deployment by battalion in mass.
52. A column in mass, whatever the number of brigades, may be formed into line of battle by deployment.
1st. Faced to the front.
2nd. Faced to the rear.
3rd. Faced to the left.
4th. Faced to the right.
5th. Oblique to the front, or rear.
53. The general having determined the line of battle, the movements prescribed in the above-named article will be executed according to the principles indicated Nos. 23-24.
54. In the formations faced to the front or rear, each brigade, other than the one of formation, will break from the general column, as prescribed No. 47, and when the leading battalion has arrived on the line, the brigadier-general will complete its deployment.
55. In a line of battalions in mass, the distances between the brigades will habitually, in presence of the enemy, be such as to afford space for each brigade to deploy its masses, and to leave the distance of one hundred and fifty paces between the flanks of the brigades.
56. If the line of masses constitute a part of the reserve, or other circumstances should render it expedient, the distances in line between the brigades can be reduced to fifty paces.
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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2004-2006.
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