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179. The peculiarities with which an artillery soldier in a field-battery must familiarize himself, in addition to most of the duties of cavalry and infantry, is the care of guns and harness, and especially the ammunition. He should understand well the principles in firing, and peculiarities of the particular gun and the ammunition used in the battery.
180. During the firing, he must learn to be composed, and guard against being confused by the noise of the cannon and the commotion among the horses. He must use his eyes, as well as his ears, and watch his own piece and the workings of his companions.
181. Where pieces are massed close together, he is apt to mistake the firing of an adjoining piece for his own; and many a man has been killed or injured by jumping in at the command “load” at an adjoining piece, just as his own gunner gave the command “fire.” To prevent the hearing from being injured by the concussion, the ears may be protected by a little cotton. The shock is also lessened by keeping the mouth open.
182. No. 3, who tends the vent, should be particularly careful to keep it closed and air-tight. This is necessary whilst sponging, to assist in extinguishing any remains of the cartridge that may be on fire in the chamber, and whilst loading, to prevent the fire from igniting the cartridge. He should not remove his thumb from the vent until every cannoneer is clear of the piece.
183. No. 4 should observe that every man is clear of the piece before he fires.
184. No. 2 should observe that No. 3 has the vent well closed when he inserts the cartridge. He should be careful to insert the cartridge correctly. The bottom should go in first, and the seam on the side.
185. No. 5 should keep the cartridge in the ammunition-pouch until he delivers it to No. 2.
186. The gunner and the chief of piece should attend closely and see that the cannoneers do not neglect any of the above instructions, and the men at the limber and caissons should keep the boxes open as little as possible. Each cannoneer should be familiar with all the duties of each post, so that they may be replaced.
187. All the cannoneers should be perfectly familiar with all the different kinds of ammunition, their uses and application, and where they are to be found. They should understand the uses of the implements in the ammunition-chest; how to spike a gun, and how to remove a spike; how to blow up ammunition-chests, and render artillery unserviceable temporarily and permanently. The greater the extent to which the solider carries this kind of knowledge, in addition to his other duties, the more serviceable will he be, and the greater will be his chances for promotion.
188. HEAVY ARTILLERY, in addition to knowledge of the ammunition and implements of gunnery, requires a practical knowledge of the forces and appliances for handling and moving heavy guns. This kind of information is not easily acquired from books; and, moreover, the appliances that may be available at one time may not be on hand at another; and tact for applying make-shifts is an essential qualification.
189. The companies are divided into detachments, whose strength is dependent upon the kind of guns used, and the detachments are officered in proportion. The same general principles and commands are used, although varying a little, as the carriage and implements of different kinds of guns vary.
The principal books of instruction for artillery are “Gibbon’s Manual,” “Manual for Heavy Artillery,” prepared by a Board of Officers, and “Anderson’s Field Artillery.” An excellent little book for instruction is “Roberts’s Handbook of Artillery.”
THE ORDNANCE SOLDIER.
190. ENLISTED men of ordnance are not so much soldiers as mechanics and laborers. They are employed in arsenals and armories for the manufacture and care of ordnance. They are enlisted like other men, but differently employed, and receive different allowances of pay, clothing, and rations.
191. Master armorers, master carriage-makers, master blacksmiths, now called sergeants of ordnance, receive thirty-four dollars per month. Armorers, carriage-makers, and blacksmiths, now called corporals, receive twenty dollars per month. Artificers, now called privates of the first class, receive eighteen dollars per month; and laborers, now called privates of the second class, receive sixteen dollars per month.
192. Sergeants and corporals receive a ration and a half per day, and the privates one ration. The sergeants are not entitled to an allowance for clothing; whilst the corporals and privates receive the same clothing as other enlisted men of the line.
193. The appointments of sergeants must be submitted to the Chief of Ordnance for his approval (Regulation 1445); but corporals and privates are mustered according to their competency, at the discretion of the officer in command. All enlisted men of ordnance enlist as privates of the lowest class, and are advanced subsequently according to their competency, and may be reduced, at the discretion of the officer in command, except the sergeants, whose reduction must be approved by the Chief of Ordnance the same as their appointment.
194. Ordnance sergeants for posts are enlisted differently and intended for different duty. (See Ordnance Sergeant, Par. 246.)
195. The enlisted men are under the direction of the commanding officers of the arsenal or armory, and the master workman, and are subject to such rules and regulations as are prescribed by the commanding officer and approved by the Chief of Ordnance, and published to the men.
196. Ordnance soldiers are paid by military storekeepers appointed to disburse the funds appropriated to the Ordnance Department.
THE ENGINEER SOLDIER.
197. ENGINEER soldiers are enlisted like other soldiers, and are similarly organized and instructed. They receive, however, different pay, and, as a class, are expected to be superior men. Recruiting officers are directed to make more rigid examination and to give preference to the best mechanics and educated men. At present there are only five companies of engineer soldiers in the United States service.
198. The pay of engineer soldiers is as follows: — sergeants, thirty-four dollars per month; corporals, twenty dollars per month; privates of the first class, eighteen dollars per month; privates of the second class, sixteen dollars per month. Rations and clothing are nearly the same as other troops.
199. They are expected to know all the garrison and field duties of soldiers of the line, and, in addition, the practical duties involved in the construction of fortifications, bridges, &c. For this reason, mechanics and educated men are preferred; and their promotion to privates of the first class, and to non-commissioned officers, depends upon their superior intelligence and progress in every department of practical military knowledge.
200. THE law allows in this corps the enlistment of one sergeant, two privates of the first class, and four of the second class, with pay, clothing, and rations of engineers, to each signal officer. Each army corps or department is allowed from six to eight signal officers: the number of officers and enlisted men is, therefore, limited by the number of departments or army corps. (Act March 3, 1863, section 17.)
201. The men are enlisted and re-enlisted the same as other soldiers, and the same high standard that is required for the engineer corps is demanded for this service. Recruiting officers for the signal corps are instructed to be very rigid in their examination of recruits. Enlisted men of other arms may be transferred to it, with the consent of commanding officers of regiments. Applications are made in the same manner as for any other transfer. The soldier must, however, submit to an examination before he will be accepted.
202. The men are mounted, armed, and equipped as light cavalry, and the uniform is the same. No drill has been specified for them except the manipulation of the signals, in which they are instructed by the officers. They should, however, understand the use of their arms, ride well, and understand the care of horses. They should also understand all the duties of their grade in the line, and be true soldiers in all respects.
203. They are sworn to secrecy, and prohibited from communicating any information they may become possessed of or acquire in the course of their duty or instruction. They should be active, athletic young men, of medium size; quick, intelligent, with superior eyesight; of good judgment and undoubted courage. They should have at least a good common-school education, and be able to write well.
204. Their duty is very similar to that of mounted patrol duty, and they usually accompany the advance of an army or body of troops sent out for observation. They are not called upon to fight, except in self-defense,—which may be frequently necessary, owing to their exposed position. At such times they should be prepared to destroy their signals, instruments, and papers when capture seems inevitable, to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. They are frequently exposed to the perils of scouts and reconnoitring parties, and should, therefore, be always in uniform, unless they are willing to run the risk of being apprehended and punished as spies.
205. THERE are a number of special appointments or positions, for which men are enlisted in the service, that differ in their duties from those of soldiers of the line, viz.:—
Drum-Major, Principal or Chief Musician, Chief Trumpeter, Trumpeter.
Saddler Sergeant and Saddler.
Furrier, Blacksmith, and Artificer.
206. When men are enlisted for any of the above positions, and mustered into service as such, they cannot be reduced to private soldiers. If they have been enlisted as soldiers and promoted to these positions, they may by sentence of court-martial be reduced.
207. Men enlisted as above, although subject to the Rules and Articles of War, and to obedience to orders and regulations, cannot be assigned to other than their legitimate duties, except in cases of manifest necessity, or when unemployed at their legitimate duties for necessary reasons. Some are part of the legal organization of regiments, whilst others exist only by special enactment of Congress. A brief summary of their duties will be given.
208. VETERINARY SURGEON.—By sec. 37, Act March 3, 1863, one veterinary surgeon is allowed to each cavalry regiment, instead of a chief farmer, with the rank of sergeant-major and a compensation of seventy-five dollars per month. The implication by the law is that he shall be enlisted into service as other soldiers although it is not so stated.
209. General Order No. 259, 1863, provides that he shall be selected by a board of three regimental officers next in rank to the commanding officer, and his name transmitted to the Chief of the Cavalry Bureau, and by him submitted to the Secretary of War for appointment. A record of all the appointments is kept in the Adjutant-General’s Office.
210. It would seem, therefore, that he is not to be regarded as an enlisted man, but has all the privileges of an appointment, and can therefore resign his position on the approval of the appointing power. His resignation would therefore be acted on in the same manner as that of an officer. There is, however, very little legislation upon his duties; he is allowed seventy-five dollars per month, but there is no provision for rations, or any other allowances.
211. His duties are implied to be the care and cure of sick and disabled horses in his regiment. A considerable education is therefore requisite, involving a knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the horse, a knowledge of chemistry sufficient to understand the character and use of the chemicals and medicines used in the treatment of horses, besides a practical knowledge and experience in the diseases to which horses are subject.
212. His duties also involve the charge of the horse-medicines allowed. These are furnished by the Quartermaster’s Department. He must, therefore, obtain them from the regimental quartermaster, to whom he renders an account of this expenditure, as they are accounted for on his property return, with other quartermaster’s property.
213. MEDICAL CADETS.—Seventy Medical Cadets are allowed by law to the medical staff of the army. Their pay is thirty dollars per month, and one ration. They enlist for one year, and are subject to the Rules and Articles of War, and their rank and pay is the same as that of the Military Cadet at West Point. (See Act August 3, 1861, section 5, and April 16, 1862, section 1.)
214. They are required to be young men of liberal education, students of medicine, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three, who have been reading medicine for two years, and have attended at least one course of lectures in a medical college.
215. Their duties are to act as dressers in the general hospitals, and as ambulance attendants in the field, under the direction and control of the medical officers alone.
216. On the fifteenth day of the last month of their service, the near approach of their discharge shall be reported to the Surgeon-General, in order, if desired, that they may be relieved by another detail of applicants.
217. It would seem, in the absence of any published regulations, that applicants for the Medical Cadet Corps should apply to the Surgeon-General at Washington, from whence they would be informed where to report for examination and enlistment.
218. DRUM-MAJOR.—For each of the new regiments of infantry, one drum-major or leader of the band is allowed, with the pay and emoluments of a second lieutenant of infantry. (Act July 29, 1861, section 4.)
219. The law with regard to drum-majors is obscure, as it allows in the same section only the pay of sergeant of cavalry, seventeen dollars; yet no drum-majors are allowed or recognized by law except in the infantry regiments of the new army, which by the same law provides that their pay shall be that of second lieutenant of infantry, implying, however, that the drum-major shall also be the leader of the band.
220. The duties of a drum-major are not prescribed by law or regulations, and are only deduced by custom. He performs the same duties with reference to the band that the first sergeant does in relation to the company. He parades the band at roll-call and calls the roll, superintends the police of their quarters, makes out the provision returns, and attends to the drawing of rations and other issues to the band.
221. He has the immediate care of the public property in use by the band. He is under the orders and instructions of the adjutant of the regiment. He drills and instructs the band in their military duties; and the company musicians are usually under his charge and instruction.
222. As leader of the band, he would in addition have charge of the instruction of the musicians, the arranging of the music, and the selection.
223. PRINCIPAL MUSICIANS.—The law allows to each regiment of regular infantry, the Fifth Artillery, and to each volunteer infantry regiment, two principal or chief musicians. Other laws with regard to bands make the position of chief musicians anomalous and inconsistent. (Act July 29, 1861.)
224. The Act of July 5, 1838, section 16, allows the chief musician seventeen dollars per month, whilst section 4, Act July 29, 1861, provides that bands shall be paid as follows: one-fourth of the twenty-four shall receive the pay of sergeants of engineers, thirty-four dollars, one-fourth the pay of corporals of engineers, twenty dollars, and one-half the pay of privates of engineers of the first class, seventeen dollars.
225. As the principal musicians are in addition to the foregoing, it follows that they get no more than the lowest class of musicians. The leader of the band, by the 4th section of the above Act, is entitled to the pay and emoluments of a second lieutenant of infantry: yet there are no leaders authorized, except in the nine new regiments of infantry. It will be seen, therefore, that the foregoing laws are quite incongruous.
226. LEADER OF THE BAND.—Where there is no leader of the band authorized, as is the case in the old regiments of artillery and infantry, and in all the cavalry regiments, one of the principal musicians acts as the leader of the band. To secure a competent musician for this purpose, the leader usually receives additional pay out of the regimental fund, or by voluntary contribution from the regiment. Leaders of brigade and regimental bands now receive seventy-five dollars per month. (Act June 20, 1864.)
227. The leader of the band is charged with the instruction of the band and the selection and arrangement of the music. He is also charged, in the absence of a drum-major, with the duties usually assigned to him. Like the drum-major, he receives his orders and instructions from the adjutant of the regiment, or, as leader of a brigade band, from the adjutant-general of the brigade.
228. BANDS.—A band is allowed to some regiments by law, and provision is made for the payment of such; but the authority granted in the Regulations, to detail soldiers for a band for such regiments as are not thus provided for, authorizes only the application of the regimental fund for support of bands in addition to their salary as soldiers.
229. The law allows a band to each of the new regiments of artillery and infantry. The bands are authorized to have not more than twenty-four musicians; and in the old regiments of infantry they are by the War Department limited to sixteen. The drum-majors and principal musicians are not included in this allowance for the band, nor are the company musicians. Cavalry regiments are not authorized to have bands.
230. The Act of June 20, 1864, fixes the pay of the principal musicians at twenty-two dollars per month, and of the other musicians at sixteen, but fails to state what proportion shall be principal musicians. The leaders in the bands of regular regiments, where no leader is authorized, usually are remunerated out of the regimental fund, or by contributions.
231. Each brigade of volunteers is allowed a band of sixteen musicians, and a leader at seventy-five dollars per month. The law is not clear as to whether the leader is one of the sixteen or in addition to them. These bands receive the same pay that the regular regiments do.
232. The cavalry regiments of the regular service, and all the regiments of the volunteer service can have bands, under the authority granted in paragraph 81, Revised Regulations. Sixteen soldiers are detailed pro rata from the companies, and instructed in music. An additional pay may be allowed them out of the regimental fund.
233. They are, for the time-being, dropped from the company returns and rolls, and are mustered on the staff roll. One of the principal musicians can be used as leader of the band, who is remunerated the same as the musicians.
234. MUSICIANS.—Each company of infantry, artillery, and engineers is allowed two musicians,—a drummer and a fifer; and in cavalry, two trumpeters. These are independent of the musicians allowed to the band. They are on the footing of privates with respect to pay, clothing, and rations. They are instructed by the drum-major or principal musician.
235. In the cavalry regiments the trumpeters are instructed by the chief trumpeter. There is no provision for an instructor of music in the four old artillery regiments. In batteries and companies of light artillery, the musicians are instructed as buglers. The companies of artillery equipped as infantry have, like infantry, a drummer and fifer.
236. Musicians of infantry, artillery, and engineers have no arms, except a musician’s sword, issued to them. The trumpeters have sabres and pistols. They take charge of the instruments used by them, and are responsible for them. They are not put on the ordinary duty of soldiers, but are liable for fatigue duties and are used as orderlies.
237. They take their turns at the guard-house for sounding the calls. When the companies of the regiment are together, the musicians of each company are united for the purpose of instruction and exercise. When a company, however, is detached, the musicians that belong to it go with it.
238. On the march, at drills or parades, all the musicians are united in a body. They draw their rations and mess with their companies. The principal musician or chief trumpeter keeps the roster and makes the details; and they are not under the first sergeant’s orders, except when acting with the company.
239. One or two musicians march on with the guard, and remain with it at the guard-house during the tour, and sound the musicians’ call ten minutes before the Assembly, at which signal all the musicians assemble. The roll is called by the chief musician, drum-major, or chief trumpeter, and then they all unite in sounding the calls for the companies.
240. It has been the practice of the service to enlist boys under eighteen as musicians and trumpeters for companies, where they show a musical capacity. The consent of the parent or guardian is necessary to legalize the enlistment. They are generally collected at depots, and instructed in music before they are assigned to regiments and companies. Boys are allowed the same pay, clothing, and rations as men in the same capacity.
241. CHIEF TRUMPETER.—The chief trumpeter in cavalry regiments occupies the corresponding position to drum-major, or principal musician, in the other regiments. The trumpeters are instructed by him, and he is held responsible for their neatness and appearance on duty and their presence at roll-calls. His pay is that of chief bugler, twenty-three dollars per month.
242. He keeps the roster, and makes the details from the trumpeters for orderlies, guard, fatigue, and other duties.
243. SADDLER SERGEANT.—Each regiment of cavalry is allowed a saddler sergeant, with the pay and emoluments of a regimental commissary sergeant, seventeen dollars per month. His duties are not defined by law or regulation. He would naturally, however, have charge of the company saddlers of the regiment, and act as master saddler or foreman when the company saddlers are united in one shop for the repair of the equipments of the companies.
244. He takes his instructions from the commanding officer of the regiment, and should attend to the repairs of the horse-equipments of the field, staff and band, and see that the company saddlers perform properly their duties in the companies.
245. SADDLERS.—Each company of cavalry is allowed an enlisted man as saddler, whose duty it is to keep the horse-equipments of the company in repair, under the direction of the company commander and the saddler sergeant. The pay of saddler is fourteen dollars per month, the same as a corporal of cavalry, with the same allowance of clothing and rations. Military duty ordinarily is not required of either saddler sergeants or saddlers; but they should be instructed in a knowledge of the ordinary duties, and should at all times be available in case of necessity.
246. ORDNANCE SERGEANT.—Each military post may have an ordnance sergeant, whose duty it is to take charge of all the surplus ordnance at the post. He is enlisted for the position and belongs to the post, and is not removed when the troops are changed. His pay is twenty-two dollars per month, one ration, and allowance for clothing. Ordnance sergeants do not belong to the Ordnance Department, but to the non-commissioned staff, unattached, of the regiment or post.
247. The following are the Regulations governing the appointment and duties of ordnance sergeant:—
“131. The Secretary of War selects from the sergeants of the line of the army, who may have faithfully served eight years (four years in the grade of non-commissioned officer), as many ordnance sergeants as the service may require, not exceeding one to each military post.
“132. Captains will report to their colonels such sergeants as, by their conduct and service, merit such appointment, setting forth the description, length of service of the sergeant, the portion of his service he was a non-commissioned officer, his general character as to fidelity and sobriety, his qualifications as a clerk, and his fitness for the duties to be performed by an ordnance sergeant. These reports will be forwarded to the Adjutant-General, to be laid before the Secretary of War, with an application in the following form:—
To the Adjutant-General:
SIR:—I forward, for consideration of the proper authority, an application for the appointment of Ordnance Sergeant.
Name and Regiment.
Length of Service.
As Non-commissioned Officer.
In the Army.
Enclosed herewith you will receive the report of _______________, the officer commanding the company in which the sergeant has been serving, to which I add the following remarks:
_______________ _______________, Commanding ____ Regiment.
“133. When a company is detached from the headquarters of the regiment, the reports of the commanding officer in this matter will pass to the regimental headquarters through the commanding officer of the post or detachment, and be accompanied by his opinion as to the fitness of the candidate.
“134. Ordnance sergeants will be assigned to posts when appointed, and are not to be transferred to other stations, except by orders from the Adjutant-General’s Office.
“135. At the expiration of their term of service, ordnance sergeants may be re-enlisted, provided they shall have conducted themselves in a becoming manner, and performed their duties to the satisfaction of the commanding officer. If the commanding officer, however, shall not think proper to re-enlist the ordnance sergeant of his post, he will communicate to the Adjutant-General his reasons for declining to re-enlist him, in time to receive the decision of the War Department before the sergeant may lawfully claim to re-enlist.
“136. The officers interested must be aware, from the nature of the duties assigned to ordnance sergeants, that the judicious selection of them is of no small importance to the interests of the service; and that while the law contemplates, in the appointment of these non-commissioned officers, the better preservation of the ordnance and ordnance stores in deposit in the several forts, there is the further motive of offering a reward to those faithful and well-tried sergeants who have long served their country, and of thus giving encouragement to the soldier in the ranks to emulate them in conduct, and thereby secure substantial promotion. Colonels and captains cannot, therefore, be too particular in investigating the characters of the candidates, and in giving their testimony as to their merits.
“137. The appointment and removal of ordnance sergeants, stationed at military posts, in pursuance of the above provisions of law, shall be reported by the Adjutant-General to the Chief of the Ordnance Department.
“138. When a non-commissioned officer receives the appointment of ordnance sergeant, he shall be dropped from the rolls of the regiment or company in which he may be serving at the time.
“139. The duty of ordnance sergeants relates to the care of the ordnance, arms, ammunition and other military stores at the post to which they may be attached, under the direction of the commanding officer, and according to the regulations of the Ordnance Department.
“140. If a post be evacuated, the ordnance sergeant shall remain on duty at the station, under the direction of the Chief of the Ordnance Department, in charge of the ordnance and ordnance stores, and of such other public property as is not in charge of some officer or agent of other departments; for which ordnance stores and other property he will account to the chiefs of the proper departments until otherwise directed.
“141. An ordnance sergeant in charge of ordnance stores at a post where there is no commissioned officer shall be held responsible for the safe-keeping of the property, and he shall he governed by the regulations of the Ordnance Department in making issues of the same, and in preparing and furnishing the requisite returns. If the means at his disposal are not sufficient for the preservation of the property, he shall report the circumstances to the Chief of the Ordnance Department.
“142. Ordnance Sergeants are to be considered as belonging to the non-commissioned staff of the post, under the orders of the commanding officer. They are to wear the uniform of the Ordnance Department, with the distinctive badges prescribed for the non-commissioned staff of regiments of artillery; and they are to appear under arms with the troops at all reviews and inspections, monthly and weekly.
“143. When serving at any post which may he the headquarters of a regiment, ordnance sergeants shall be reported by name on the post returns, and mustered with the non-commissioned staff of the regiment; and at all other posts they shall be mustered and reported in some company stationed at the post at which they serve; be paid on the muster-roll, and be charged with the clothing and all other supplies previously received from any officer, or subsequently issued to them by the commanding officer of the company for the time-being. Whenever the company may be ordered from the post, the ordnance sergeant will be transferred to the rolls of any remaining company, by the order of the commanding officer of the post.
“144. In the event of the troops being all withdrawn from a post at which there is an ordnance sergeant, he shall be furnished with his descriptive roll and account of clothing and pay, signed by the proper officer last in command, accompanied by the remarks necessary for his military history; and on his exhibiting such papers to any paymaster, with a letter from the Ordnance Office acknowledging the receipt of his returns, and that they are satisfactory, he will be paid on a separate account the amount which may be due him at the date of the receipt of the returns mentioned in such letter, together with commutation of rations, according to the regulations of he Subsistence Department. A certified statement of his pay account will be furnished the ordnance sergeant by the paymaster by whom he may be last paid. When there are no troops at the post, the ordnance sergeant will report to the Adjutant-General’s Office, by letter, on the last day of every month.”
248. The commanding officer is responsible for the ordnance stores, and the returns are signed by him. The ordnance sergeant, therefore, takes his orders from him. When, however, there are no commissioned officer or troops at the post, he makes the returns in his own name.
249. By Regulation 140, an ordnance sergeant may also be placed in charge of property belonging to other departments, in the case of evacuation of the post by the troops, in which case he is required to make the prescribed returns, the same as an officer, to the department to which the property appertains.
250. Ordnance sergeants cannot be reduced to the ranks by sentence of a court-martial; but they can be discharged from service. They cannot, however, be tried by a garrison court-martial, except by special permission of the department commander (Reg. 895.)
251. HOSPITAL STEWARD.—There are two kinds of hospital stewards allowed by law. First, those for posts and general hospitals: of these there may be enlisted as many as the Surgeon-General may require.
252. Second, to each cavalry regiment two regimental hospital stewards, Fifth Artillery one, and to the new regiments of infantry one for each battalion, called battalion hospital stewards. All these have the same rations and clothing as ordnance sergeants, and thirty-three dollars per month.
253. There is another kind of hospital steward allowed by Regulations. (Reg. 1325, and note.) An enlisted man may be detailed, called an Acting Hospital Steward, in the absence of a competent person to be appointed. In this capacity, at posts of four companies or less he will receive twenty-five dollars per month; and, when there are more than four companies, twenty-two dollars per month.
254. Hospital stewards may be appointed from the enlisted men of the army, or may be directly enlisted for the position. When an enlisted man is to be appointed, he must be recommended by the senior medical officer, and the recommendation should be endorsed by the commanding officer of the company and of the post or detachment. None but competent men should be recommended for the permanent appointment. (Reg. 1324.) Enlisted men, thus appointed, are appointed only for the balance of their enlistment, except volunteers, who must be discharged and enlisted again in the regular service.
255. When hospital stewards are enlisted as such, they enlist for three years. The applicant for an appointment writes his own application, and accompanies it with suitable recommendation to the Surgeon-General: if he is accepted, an order will be issued directing his enlistment.
256. Hospital stewards may be re-enlisted by the commanding officer, on the recommendation of the medical officer of the post or station. He is entitled to the benefits extended to all soldiers for re-enlisting, viz.:—two dollars per month additional for the first re-enlistment, and one dollar per month for each subsequent re-enlistment, provided the reenlistment, in each case, takes place within one month after the expiration of his enlistment.
257. Great care should be taken in the enlistment of hospital stewards, as the position is a responsible one. The first enlistment should be between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five. The same physical qualifications are required of a hospital steward as of a recruit. He must be free from disease and able-bodied, honest, temperate, and industrious, of even temper, and devoted to the wants and patient under the whims of the sick.
258. He must have a thorough knowledge of the English language, so as to speak and write it correctly; otherwise he could not take charge of the books and records of the hospital. He must have a practical knowledge of pharmacy, sufficient to take charge of the dispensary and of surgery, be able to dress wounds and apply bandages, extract teeth, and to cup and bleed; he should also be a good cook.
259. The duties of hospital steward involve the charge of the dispensary, and the administrative duties of the hospital. Where there are several hospital stewards in the same hospital, the duties are divided. One is placed in the dispensary, who takes charge of the medicines, puts up the prescriptions, attends the surgeon in his inspections and surgical operations, performs the minor duties of surgery, applies bandages, extracts teeth, cups and bleeds, and makes the dressings.
260. Another steward may be placed in charge of the kitchen or cooking department, who attends to the drawing of the provisions, sees that they are properly cooked, and that the victuals are distributed according to the surgeon’s directions. He manages the hospital fund, makes purchases, and takes charge of the hospital stores proper.
261. Another steward, who should be the chief steward, directs the ward-masters, nurses, and attendants in their duties, attends to the police, ventilations, and warnings, calls the roll, receives the reports, and reports to the surgeon any violations of the regulations of the hospital, and any neglect of duty on the part of any of the hospital corps. He also takes charge of the hospital books, and prepares the reports.
262. In a hospital where there is but one steward, all these duties devolve upon him; and the hospital steward should therefore be familiar with all of them.[§] He is a non-commissioned officer, and as such ranks all the enlisted men of the line. They are subject to his orders, and he should exact implicit obedience from all composing the hospital corps, except the medical cadet.
263. For the details regarding the duties of hospital stewards, see “The Hospital Steward’s Manual.”
264. Hospital stewards are subject to the Articles of War, may be tried by general court-martials and by garrison courts on the approval of the department commander, and are subject to all the punishments inflicted by courts on non-commissioned officers, except that they cannot be reduced to the ranks: they may, however, be discharged. The following Regulations must be borne in mind:
“1327. Hospital stewards, whenever stationed in places whence no post return is made to the Adjutant-General’s Office, or when on furlough, will, at the end of every month, report themselves by letter to the Adjutant-General and Surgeon-General, as well as to the medical director of the military department in which they may he serving; to each of whom they will also report each new assignment to duty, or change of station, ordered in their case, noting carefully the number, date, and source of the order directing the same. They will likewise report monthly, when on furlough, to the medical officer in charge of the hospital to which they are attached.
“1328. The accounts of pay, clothing, &c. of hospital stewards must be kept by the medical officers under whose immediate direction they are serving, who are, also, responsible for certified statements of such accounts, and correct descriptive lists of such stewards, to accompany them in case of transfer,—as, also, that their final statements and certificates of discharge are accurately made out when they are, at length, discharged from service.”
[§] In the absence of a hospital steward for the duty, an intelligent attendant has charge of the kitchen and cooking, and is called the Hospital Commissary.
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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2006.
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