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265. WAGONER.—Each company of cavalry, volunteers, and regulars, and each company of artillery in the Fifth Regiment, is allowed one wagoner, who is mustered as such, with the pay of a corporal of cavalry, fourteen dollars, and the clothing and rations of a soldier.  Wagoners are enlisted as soldiers, and selected afterwards, and may, therefore, at any time be returned to the ranks.

266. The wagoner was originally intended to take charge of the company wagon, and formerly one was allowed to each company.  In the present war, however, transportation has been materially reduced, and the wagon-train placed exclusively under the direction of the regimental quartermaster, and thus the wagoner has ceased to be under the control of the company commander.  A peace-establishment would necessitate a return to the former custom, and the wagoner be used exclusively by the company for the conveyance of the company property.

267. The law with regard to wagon-masters and wagoners for the Quartermaster’s Department has been virtually null and void, owing to the conflicting allowance of pay, as given in the Acts of July 5, 1838, section 10, and August 3, 1861, section 3.  The last law allows the rank, pay, and allowances of sergeants of cavalry (seventeen dollars) to wagon-masters, and for wagoners the rank, pay, and allowances of corporals of cavalry.  The former allows the appointment of wagon-masters at forty dollars per month, and three rations per day, and forage for one horse.

268. These laws, however, are not regarded; and citizens are hired as teamsters, at such salaries as are justified by the locality and the prevailing prices, by the Quartermaster’s Department.  They are not enlisted men, but, whilst they are employed in the field, are subject to the Rules and Articles of War, and liable to be tried by a court-martial.

269. COOKS.—The law now allows the enlistment of four African under-cooks for each company of more than thirty men; if less, two are allowed.  They receive ten dollars per month, three of which may be drawn in clothing, and one ration. (See Act March 3, 1863, section 10.)   They are enlisted the same as other enlisted men, and their accounts are kept in the same way:  they are entered on the company muster-rolls, at the foot of the list of privates. (G. O. No. 323, 1863.)

270. These cooks are to be under the direction of a head-cook, detailed from the soldiers alternately every ten days, when the company is of less than thirty men; when the company is of more than thirty men, two head-cooks are allowed.  These are quite sufficient to cook the rations for a company; and, by system and method, the comfort and subsistence of a company may be greatly improved.  The frequent changing of cooks under the old system worked badly for the comfort of the soldier, and they were often treated to unwholesome food, in consequence of the inexperience of some of the men.

271. The object of changing the head-cooks every ten days, as required by section 9, Act March 8, 1863, is to teach all the men how to cook; but it will follow that the under-cooks, who are permanently on that duty, will know more about it than the head-cooks.  They will simply be held responsible that the cooking is properly performed.

272. The non-commissioned officers of those companies that have no commissary sergeant take their regular tour to superintend the issue of the provisions to the men, to see that the provisions are properly cooked, that there is no waste or pilfering, and that each soldier is served without distinction or favor.  In the cavalry companies, this duty is performed by the company commissary sergeant.

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SPECIAL OR EXTRA DUTY.

273. SOLDIERS may be employed on duties not strictly military, when the exigencies of the service require it, for the reason that they are incident to the operations of an army, viz.:—

As Mechanics and Laborers, Cooks and Attendants in Hospitals, Regimental Armorers, Clerks, Officers’ Servants, Pioneers, Scouts, Spies, &c. &c.

274. It has been the custom to allow additional pay for such duties.  By section 35 of the Act of March 3, 1863, such payments have been discontinued; but by the same section the authority to order such details for special service is limited to the commanding officer of forces in the field.[**]

275. MECHANICS AND LABORERS.—The employment of mechanics and laborers is generally under the direction of a quartermaster, commissary, or engineer officer, although an officer may be specially detailed to take charge of such workmen.  The soldier is then relieved from duty in his company, and takes his orders from the officer in whose department he is employed.

276. Laborers include teamsters, herders, packers, assistants, strikers, &c.; and they are usually placed under some non-commissioned officer, wagon-master, packmaster, or principal workman, through whom the officer transmits his orders and instructions to the employees.

277. The same rules of discipline and obedience apply to soldiers employed on these duties as when on military duty.  Simple whim or caprice is not sufficient excuse to be relieved; and applications for such an object must be respectful, and based on some plausible reason.

278. Soldiers detailed on such duty are required to attend Sunday and monthly inspections and muster, and, if not proficient in drill, should be required to attend drills until they know their duties as soldiers.

279. COOKS AND ATTENDANTS IN HOSPITALS.—Soldiers may be placed on duty in hospitals as cooks and attendants for the sick.  In these capacities they are under the direction of the surgeon of the hospital, and receive their orders and instructions from him.

280. They are usually under the immediate control of the hospital steward, who directs them in the details of their duties.  The regulations for the government of the hospital guide them in their duties, appertaining principally to its police and cleanliness, the administration of medicine, and the care and feeding of the patients.

281. REGIMENTAL ARMORERS.—Regiments armed with muskets, rifles, or carbines other than the Springfield rifle model of 1855-61-63, are entitled to an armorer, for the purpose of keeping the regimental arms in repair.  He can be supplied with a set of tools and extra parts by a proper requisition on the Ordnance Department. (Par 65, instructions for making ordnance returns.)

282. Under the direction of the commanding officer, it is the duty of the armorer to keep the arms of the regiment in repair, and to take care of the tools and extra parts.

283. CLERKS.—Competent soldiers are much called for in the various departments, as clerks, in cases where the employment of a citizen clerk is not allowed.  Like other extra-duty men, they are under the direction of the officer in whose department they are detailed, and their work may involve all the knowledge from that of a simple copyist to a complete knowledge of the administrative duties of the department they are in.

284. Clerks have the best opportunity of learning the administrative duties of the army, and, consequently, have better chances for promotion than in the ranks.  The management and control of men, however, can only be learned by actual experience.

285. OFFICERS’ SERVANTS.—Soldiers with their own consent and that of their captain, may be taken by company officers as servants.  They are, however, required to be acquainted with their military duties, to be completely armed and equipped, and to attend at inspections and reviews with their companies. (Regulations 124 and 125.)

286. The custom most generally resorted to, is for the soldier to appropriate his leisure hours to such service; and he is not excused from any of his duty with the company.  A soldier cannot be required to perform any service for the private benefit of an officer or mess of officers, unless he consent and is mustered as an officer’s servant. (Regulation 126.)

287. PIONEERS, SCOUTS, SPIES, EXPRESS-MEN, &c.—Soldiers are frequently employed in the foregoing capacities, in the absence of civilians.  No specific instructions can be laid down for such duties.  They generally receive their orders from the authorities directing the details, and are guided by the circumstances under which they are detailed.

288. PIONEERS are soldiers detailed to precede a command on the march, for the purpose of repairing the roads, bridges, &c.  The pioneer party is usually composed of details of one or two men from each company in the command, with axes, picks, and spades, and sent in rear of the advance guard, but in front of the main force.  An officer is usually detailed to direct the men in their work.  It is not a permanent party, but only detailed for the emergency; and when the necessity is over the men are returned to their respective companies.

289. SCOUTS AND SPIES.—It is sometimes necessary to have soldiers act as scouts and spies.  This is often dangerous duty, under certain circumstances, and is, therefore, generally well rewarded.  They are used to procure information of the enemy, and require peculiar fitness for the duty.

290. As long as the soldier wears his uniform, he only subjects himself to the ordinary dangers of war, principally of being captured and treated as a prisoner of war.  When, however, he lays aside his uniform and assumes a citizen’s dress, or other disguise, and is caught within the enemy’s lines, the usual penalty is death by hanging.

291. The laying aside of his uniform, whilst it increases the penalty if caught, diminishes the chances of capture; and the soldier must exercise his discretion which alternative to choose; for no officer understanding the obligations of a soldier would require him to subject himself to the penalties of a spy against his will, however much he might tempt him with the promise of reward if he accomplished his mission.  A soldier, however, can be required to go within the enemy’s lines in uniform when the service requires it.

292. COURIERS.—For the purpose of transmitting information rapidly, mounted soldiers are sometimes detailed as couriers, express-men, or messengers.  The route to be traveled may lead through an enemy’s country; and it is necessary to wear the uniform, in order to save the soldier from the penalties of a spy.  The duty is very similar to that of a scout.

293. The soldier should be prepared to destroy the despatches when in danger of capture; for which reason an intelligent man should be selected, in order that the contents of his despatches may be made known to him verbally, so that, if he is in danger of being captured and compelled to destroy his despatches, he may still be able to communicate their purport, if he should escape the danger which compelled him to destroy them.

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NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

ORGANIZATION.

294. THE non-commissioned officers of a regiment and company, allowed by law in the various arms and regiments of the army, are as follows, viz.:—

INFANTRY AND ARTILLERY.

(Old Army.)

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Each Company.

One Sergeant Major.

One First Sergeant.

One Quartermaster Sergeant.

Three Sergeants.

Two Principal Musicians.

Four Corporals.

 

295. Volunteer regiments of infantry differ from the above in having one commissary sergeant and one hospital steward, and no principal musicians, in the non-commissioned staff and four sergeants and eight corporals in each company.

          296.

INFANTRY.

 

(New Army.)

Non Commissioned Staff.

Each Company.

Three Battalion Sergeant Majors.

One First Sergeant.

Three Battalion Quartermaster Sergeants.

Four Sergeants.

Three Battalion Commissary Sergeants.

Eight Corporals.

Three Battalion Hospital Stewards.

 

One Drum-Major, or Leader of the Band.

 

Two Principal Musicians.

 

          297.

ARTILLERY.

 

(New Army.)

Non Commissioned Staff.

Each Company.

One Sergeant Major.

One First Sergeant.

Two Quartermaster Sergeants.

One Quartermaster Sergeant.

One Commissary Sergeant.

Four Sergeants.

One Hospital Steward.

Eight Corporals.

Two Principal Musicians.

 

 

 

Volunteer artillery differs from the above in having no principal musicians.

          298.

CAVALRY.

 

(New Army.)

Non Commissioned Staff.

Each Company.

One Sergeant Major.

One First Sergeant.

One Veterinary Sergeant.

One Quartermaster Sergeant.

One Quartermaster Sergeant.

One Commissary Sergeant.

One Commissary Sergeant.

Five Sergeants.

Two Hospital Stewards.

Eight Corporals.

One Chief Trumpeter.

 

One Saddler Sergeant.

 

 

 

Regular and volunteer cavalry have the same.

          299.

ENGINEERS.

 

Each Company.

Ten Sergeants.

Ten Corporals.

ORDNANCE.

300. The Ordnance Department has no regimental organization.  The enlisted men are organized into companies at the various armories and arsenals, and the master workmen are now called sergeants.  The armorers, carriage-makers, and blacksmiths are now called corporals; the artificers, privates of the first class; and the laborers, privates of the second class.  The number of each is only limited by the wants of the Ordnance Department.

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RANK.

301. NON-COMMISSIONED officers, like commissioned officers, rank according to date of commissions or warrants in the same grade.  The different grades rank as follows, viz.:—

1. Cadet and Medical Cadet.

2. Sergeant Major.

3. Regimental Quartermaster, and Commissary Sergeants.

4. Ordnance Sergeants and Hospital Stewards.

5. First Sergeant.

6. Sergeants.

7. Corporals.

302. Non-commissioned officers are all appointed by the commanding officer of the regiment; those of the company, however, are appointed on the recommendation of the company commanders.  All non-commissioned officers of a regiment can be reduced by sentence of a court-martial.

303. The non-commissioned officers of a company can be reduced by the commanding officer of the regiment on the recommendation of the company commander; but, without such a recommendation, they must be tried by a court-martial, in order that they may be reduced.

304. Cadets, medical cadets, ordnance sergeants, and hospital stewards appointed by the Surgeon-General, cannot be reduced; although they may be discharged dishonorably.

305. Each non-commissioned officer receives a certificate or warrant of his rank, signed by the commanding officer of the regiment, and counter-signed by the adjutant. (Reg. 80.)

306. At depots for recruits, where there is no legal organization, temporary appointments are made, called Lance Sergeants and Lance Corporals, that by Regulations have the same authority as a duly authorized appointment, and they must be obeyed and respected accordingly.  They do not, however, receive any increase of pay beyond that of a private; and, when the recruits reach their destination, the appointment ceases.  The successful performance of this duty, however, as non-commissioned officer would lead to a consideration of their claim to promotion in case of a vacancy. (Reg. 971.)

307. For the purpose of ascertaining the merits of candidates, and particularly to replace absent non-commissioned officers who have not vacated their appointments, the Lance appointments are frequently made in the companies.  Such soldiers are virtually on probation, and their succession to the permanent appointments, when vacancies occur, necessarily depends on the manner in which they perform their duties under the acting appointment.  Lance appointments wear the chevron of their rank, the same as legal appointments.

308. Non-commissioned officers are usually, for offenses, placed in arrest; and only in grave cases are they placed in the guard-house. (Reg. 78.)  Commissioned officers only have authority to arrest non-commissioned officers.

309. Non-commissioned officers are entitled to implicit obedience from the soldiers, and they should be obeyed and respected by the men; and when a non-commissioned officer fails in obtaining this regard and obedience from the men, he falls in his most essential qualification.

310. The confidence of the soldiers in the integrity of a non-commissioned officer can only be obtained by his being rigidly just and impartial to those under him, and by keeping his temper on all occasions, and discharging his duty without passion or feeling.  A non-commissioned officer who cannot control himself will find difficulty in controlling those over whom he is placed.

311. Confidence and energy are the progressive traits of the non-commissioned officer who would be successful.  Let him first feel he is right, and acting in obedience to orders and instructions, and then do his duty with decision and firmness; and success will be more certain, and failure much less discreditable.

312. Non-commissioned officers should provide themselves with a pencil and notebook in which to enter the names of men forming the details.  Orders and instructions given to them verbally they should at once reduce to writing, and not trust to their memory.  Lists of property placed in their charge temporarily should be entered; and, in fact, all items that it may possibly be necessary to recall should be put down in such a book.

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THE CORPORAL.

313. THE appointment of corporal is the first step to promotion in the army, and may lead to the highest distinction in the military service.  The corporal is usually selected from the most intelligent privates, who have been longest in the service, and who are noted for their military appearance and attention to duty.

314. The sergeants are appointed from the corporals; and they should therefore look upon their position as one of probation, and should seek to perform well their part, in order that they may be advanced.

315. The pay of a corporal of artillery and infantry is the same as that of a private, thirteen dollars per month, owing to the fact that when the pay of privates was increased that of non-commissioned officers was not changed.  In the cavalry their pay is fourteen dollars per month; in the engineers and ordnance, twenty dollars.  They get one ration per day, except the corporal of ordnance, who receives a ration and a half.  They get a small increase on the allowance of clothing to a private.

316. The duties of a corporal are simple, and depend for their successful performance mainly upon his capacity to control and direct soldiers in the performance of their duty.  They take charge of the smaller details for fatigue and police duty in camp and garrison duty: their most important duty is that of Corporal of the Guard.  They frequently succeed to the responsibilities of sergeant in his absence, and should therefore be familiar with his duties.

317. Corporals should bear in mind that they are entitled to implicit obedience from the men placed under them; and, whilst they are not usually authorized to confine soldiers on their own judgment, they should always be sustained by their superiors in the performance of their duties, and in the execution of their office.

318. When a soldier neglects his duty towards a corporal, the corporal should at once report the fact to the first sergeant, whose duty it is either to decide in the matter, or to report it to his company commander.

319. Non-commissioned officers have it in their power at times to favor certain soldiers, that is, to relieve them from the most disagreeable part of the duty before them, and give it to others.  Such distinctions soon destroy their influence over men, and give rise to trouble and difficulty.

320. They should seek to be just towards the men, treat all alike, and when a hardship falls upon an individual he should have no grounds for thinking he has been especially selected.

321. The corporal should insist upon obedience, without being arbitrary, and should maintain his position as a non-commissioned officer firmly, but without arrogance.  When he first receives his appointment, his calibre meets with the severest tests.  Soldiers, for a time, will be apt to try the material he is made of, which they do in many ways, and by progressive steps, and, if not checked, will increase to a complete disregard, and terminate in an entire inefficiency of the corporal.

322. He should take the first opportunity, and make it the decisive issue that will settle once and for all that he intends to maintain his position with the jealousy of the highest grade.

323. Corporals should be living examples for the soldiers in the neatness and cleanliness of their clothing, arms, and accoutrements.  They should be the first to fall into ranks at roll-calls, and should have their tents or bunks, wherever their quarters, always systematically in order.

324. They should be familiar with the “School of the Soldier,” and capable of instruction the recruits in the elementary principles of tactics.

325. In the field, where it is sometimes difficult to cook for the entire company, it is divided into messes and the non-commissioned officers placed in charge of the different messes pro rata.  They are held responsible for the conduct of the mess-mates in the keeping of their tents and the care of the camp and garrison equipage in their charge.

326. CORPORAL OF THE GUARD.—This is the most important duty that falls to the corporal.  He should be perfectly familiar with the duties of the sentinel, and able to instruct the members of the guard in their duties.

327. Ordinarily, a guard consists of a lieutenant and sergeant of the guard, and three corporals, one to each relief.  As soon as the guard has marched on, it is divided into three reliefs.  The senior corporal is assigned to the first relief, the next to the second, and the third corporal to the last relief.

328. As soon as his relief has been assigned to him, the corporal makes a list of the names and numbers, beginning on the right, the odd numbers being in the front rank, and the even numbers in the rear rank.  This list is handed to the sergeant of the guard.  The corporal should keep a copy of it also.

329. As soon as the list of the first relief is taken, the corporal marches it off to post it, accompanied by the corporal of the old guard.  No. 1 is relieved first; he is always stationed at the guard-house, and is not required to march round the chain of sentinels with the relief.  The other sentinels are relieved in succession, and are required to fall in in the rear and march round in order, at a “Support Arms.”  The Regulations prescribe:

 

394. When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he will halt and face to it, with his arms at a shoulder.  At six paces, the corporal will command,

1. Relief.  2. HALT!

when the relief will halt and carry arms.  The corporal will then add, ‘No. 1,’ or ‘No. 2,’ or ‘No. 3,’ according to the number of the post,

Arms—PORT!

The two sentinels will, with arms at port, then approach each other, when the old sentinel, under the correction of the corporal, will whisper the instructions to the new sentinel.  This done, the two sentinels will shoulder arms, and the old sentinel will pass, in quick time, to his place in rear of the relief.  The corporal will then command,

1. Support—ARMS!  2. Forward.  3. March!

and the relief proceeds in the same manner until the whole are relieved.”

 

330. The first relief should be posted as promptly as possible, as both guards are kept waiting until all the sentinels have been relieved and have joined their guards to march off.  The new guard does not “Stack Arms” until the old one has marched off.

331. If the guard is small, there may be but one corporal; and he then would be required to post all the reliefs, and, in all probability, there would be no officer of the guard, and the sergeant then would be the commander of the guard.  When there is a corporal to each relief, each corporal parades his own relief, posts it, and instructs the sentinels in their duty.  He answers the call of the sentinels of his relief for “Corporal of the Guard.”

332. The reliefs are usually posted for two hours: they have, therefore, four hours off post.  It may be necessary to have two or all the corporals visiting the sentinels at once.  The corporals of the other reliefs may therefore be called on when the corporal whose relief is on post is absent on duty.  Each corporal, however, answers the calls of his own relief as far as possible.

333. The corporal should visit his relief thoroughly the first tour by daylight, and see that the sentinels know their day-orders well, and again the first tour at night, to see that they know and perform their night-duties properly.  And they should be visited at other times also, until they know and perform their duties well; for the corporal will be held responsible by the officer of the guard that the sentinels are properly instructed.

334. Corporals should remember that the only persons authorized to give them orders when on guard are the commanding officer, officer of the day, and the commissioned and non-commissioned officers of the guard; and they take orders from no other persons.

335. The privates of the guard should make their applications to be absent from the guard, through the corporals, who are required to see that they return punctually and are not absent longer than is necessary.  The corporal is held responsible that he reports to the officer of the guard all neglect of duty or disobedience of orders or instructions by members of the guard.

336. The corporal whose relief is on post at twilight receives the countersign and communicates it to the sentinels of his relief.  Afterwards the countersign is communicated by the old sentinel to the new one when the relief marches round.

337. Corporals should be careful how they exercise their own discretion in reporting offences or neglect of duty by the men.  It often happens that it may be wise and judicious to let the first offence pass, with the admonition that if repeated it will certainly be taken notice of.  In no case should a repetition of the same offence be allowed to pass unreported, as it is sure to be followed by others.

338. In cities and towns, and in the neighborhood of camps, patrol guards are often sent out under a non-commissioned officer, to pick up soldiers absent without authority, and to correct any abuses of which soldiers may be guilty.  Such patrol guards have no authority over commissioned officers, and it is not proper that such patrols should be instructed to demand passes of officers.  Such patrols may, however, give information of improper conduct on the part of officers to the officer of the day or officer of the guard.

339. THE CORPORAL OF POLICE.—He may be on general police or company police.  On the former, he will probably be under the direction of the officer of police or sergeant, and have a detail placed under his direction to police a certain extent of ground about the camp or quarters.  On company police, he will have charge of cleaning up the company parade-ground and quarters, under the instruction of the first sergeant.

340. The police party is usually turned out twice during the day,—in the morning soon after reveille and in the afternoon before evening parade.  The duty is light if regularly performed and the corporals are attentive and require the men to do their work thoroughly each time they are turned out.

341. In barracks, the duty corresponding to police in camp, is room-orderly.  He usually goes on for a week at a time, and alternates with the duty-sergeant and corporals, occupying the same room in barracks, in regulating the police of the room.  He sees that the men keep their bunks or bedsteads in order, roll up their beds, and fold their blankets neatly after reveille; that the room is swept out and prepared for the morning inspection.  In winter-time, or cold weather, the police party is required to cut wood for the kitchen and for the quarters, where the fires are used in common.  The corporal superintends the party, and sees that the duty is properly performed.

342. FATIGUE.—Corporals usually have charge of the smaller details for fatigue duty.  Fatigue duty includes all the irregular work that the soldier is called upon to perform from time to time.  In the field, in includes working upon roads, building field-works, rifle-pits, &c., making or removing obstructions, duty on forage-parties, and, in fact, all the duties where details of men are required, without arms, for short periods.

343. In barracks or quarters there are many duties that call for details for fatigue, such as loading or unloading of stores, the removal of stores from one place to another, digging of graves for deceased soldiers or officers, labor on the grounds, works, or buildings of the post, &c.  All such duties are usually claimed as fatigue, and the labor should be divided pro rata among the non-commissioned officers and the men.

344. Corporals may either have charge of a separate party or a subdivision, and receive their instructions as to what they are expected to do, and are held responsible by their superior officers for the performance of their duty.

345. They should make lists of the names of the men under them, so that they will know at any time what men are under their orders, and be able to settle any question that may come up concerning the detail.  The habit of taking notes cannot be too strongly recommended to corporals and other non-commissioned officers.

346. They are also held responsible for the tools and other implements used by the party, and should therefore take memoranda of their number, kind, and condition, and, if any are lost, broken, or injured, they should report by whom and how they were damaged, and “whether by fault of any one,” when they are turned in again.

347. ARTILLERY AND CAVALRY.—What has been laid down thus far is for the corporal of infantry, and for artillery and cavalry when dismounted.  Some few duties are to be noted for the corporal mounted.

348. The duty of posting mounted sentinels in the vicinity of the enemy is generally entrusted to an officer, although along an extended line non-commissioned officers can be used to post some of the less important posts.  Sergeants and corporals are usually posted with the men at important points of the line, where a number of men are necessary.

349. They see that the men do not neglect their duty, and have the officers’ instructions obeyed, as regards the conduct of the post, the manner in which they are to keep the look-out, and what they are to do in the event of certain things being done by the enemy.

350. They are sometimes required to visit the sentinels of the outer chain, to see that they are on the alert, or to carry orders to them, or to relieve or reinforce them, all of which requires a clear comprehension of the orders transmitted, and a capacity for making the men understand them correctly.

351. Sentinels are liable to lose sight of the main object for which they are posted, and to turn their attention to some minor points of their instructions.  Corporals should seek to impress upon them the main objects for which they are posted, and to explain to the sentinel what is important and what is secondary.  Orders should not be given loosely, but with the greatest care; and the observance of the strict letter of the orders is not so important as the spirit of them.

352. Thus, a party may be posted on a road with orders to let no one go by without written authority, the object of the post being to allow no one to go by with information for the enemy.  A messenger or courier may arrive with important intelligence, desiring to go within the lines, and the officer who sent him, not anticipating such orders, may not have supplied him with the required pass.  It would, therefore, not be proper to stand upon the strict letter of the order, but he should be passed in, accompanied by a sentinel, to the nearest officer.

353. Some judgment is required, in posting the outer sentinels, in choosing proper positions.  It should be remembered that whilst in the daytime elevated positions afford the best view, the reverse is the case at night; and the night posts should be removed to the hollows, where, in addition to giving a view against the sky of any one approaching, the sentinel himself cannot be seen; and it is important that pickets should not expose their posts to view any more than is necessary, and, to prevent surprises, they should be changed as frequently as possible.

354. Corporals of cavalry are sometimes placed in charge of small parties to reconnoitre, commonly called patrols.  Such duty requires caution, a knowledge of the country, and, most of all, good common sense.  Some shrewdness may at times be exercised in getting information from the inhabitants, in the enemy’s country.

355. The object of the patrol may be specific or general: in either case, every thing should be observed in order that all possible questions about the route taken may be anticipated,—the roads, houses, streams, their distance apart, the character of the country, the disposition of the inhabitants, &c., and, in fact, every feature that could affect troops advancing or retreating.

356. In making a report on returning, a distinction should be made between what is actually seen, and what is only conjecture or report, giving in each instance the authority.  All exaggeration should be avoided; but no objection can be had to laying stress upon whatever is considered particularly important.

357. The corporal should keep his patrol together as much as possible, and not permit his men to straggle or pursue any object of curiosity or interest of their own, and should especially guard against depredations or pillage.  Private property even of enemies is respected by the laws of war, and its capture and appropriation are never justifiable unless ordered by higher authority and for public use.  It may be necessary here and there to detach a man; but, as a rule, the patrol should keep together as much as possible for the sake of mutual support.

358. When the object of the patrol is specific, every other consideration should yield to that object.  That is, the opportunity to do something else perhaps creditable should not be undertaken if the success of the patrol for the particular object would be endangered thereby.

359. Thus, an opportunity to capture a patrol of the enemy might present itself.  On the advance it would rarely be justifiable, but on the return it might be undertaken, if in case of failure the information obtained would still be transmitted and the object of the patrol completed.

360. Strict caution is sometimes necessary.  By roads and unfrequented paths should be traveled, or, if necessary, roads should be entirely avoided.  If the object of the patrol is important, no superior force or obstacles should be regarded as a good excuse for abandoning the object and returning, and there must be no supposed impossibility.  The attempt must be made, and failure ascertained beyond a doubt.  If driven back or pursued by the enemy, as soon as he gives up the pursuit the object of the patrol must be resumed.

361. Stable-guards are peculiar to artillery and cavalry.  Corporals and duty-sergeants alternate on this detail.  Usually a non-commissioned officer and three men are sufficient.  They do not march on, like the other guard, are not armed, and do not challenge.

362. Their duty is to watch the horses that none get loose and escape, and that they do not injure themselves.  The non-commissioned officers are responsible that the guard is properly posted and regularly relieved.  They go on at retreat, and are relieved at reveille.

363. Horses escaping through the neglect of the stable-guard should be charged to them and deducted from their pay.  They may be charged to the entire guard, each paying his share; or, where it can be ascertained what particular sentinel permitted the horse to escape, the amount may be charged exclusively to him.

364. Corporals of artillery usually act as gunners, and assist the chief of piece in managing the gun and directing the cannoneers.  The piece may be aimed either by the gunner or the chief of piece.

______________

THE SERGEANT.

365. IT is difficult to draw the line between the duties of the corporal and those of the sergeant.  There is really no great difference in their duties.  Sergeants generally have larger details under their charge, and have corporals under their direction to assist them.  They are usually intrusted with more responsible duties, and they are supposed to have greater experience, and to approach nearer the commissioned officer in a knowledge of all military matters.

366. Sergeants generally have a more general supervision of the men, whilst corporals have more of the detail to attend to.  The company should be divided into a number of squads proportionate to the number of duty-sergeants in the company, with a proportionate number of corporals, who should have charge when the sergeants are absent.

367. They are responsible for the camp and garrison equipage which the squad has in general use.  They have charge of the preliminary instruction of the men in their various duties, and must preserve order in their squad, and see that the men do not absent themselves without proper authority.

368. The most important duty of sergeant is that of file-closer.  Posted in the rear of the company when paraded, it is his duty to see that the men pay attention to their duty, preserve order, march properly, and keep closed.

369. In time of battle, it is his duty to keep men in ranks, not to allow them to fall out on any pretext, and to prevent them from misbehaving before the enemy.  He is even required to shoot men down when they attempt to run away in times of danger.

370. The men must not be permitted to fall out to attend the wounded without orders; the battle must be won first, and then the wounded can be taken care of without endangering the safety of the entire command.


[**] The Third Auditor has decided that, under the authority granted in the Regulations, extra-duty pay may still he allowed, until the Regulations are changed.


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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2006.


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