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“ART. 22. No non-commissioned officer or soldier shall enlist himself in any other regiment, troop, or company, without a regular discharge from the regiment, troop, or company in which he last served, on the penalty of being reputed a deserter, and suffering accordingly. And in case any officer shall knowingly receive and entertain such non-commissioned officer or soldier, or shall not, after his being discovered to be a deserter, immediately confine him, and give notice thereof to the corps in which he last served, the said officer shall, by a court-martial, be cashiered.
“ART. 23. Any officer or soldier who shall be convicted of having advised or persuaded any other officer or soldier to desert the service of the United States, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 24. No officer or soldier shall use any reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures to another, upon pain, if an officer, of being put in arrest; if a soldier, confined, and of asking pardon of the party offended in the presence of his commanding officer.
“ART. 25. No officer or soldier shall send a challenge to another officer or soldier, to fight a duel, or accept a challenge if sent, upon pain, if a commissioned officer, of being cashiered; if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, of suffering corporal punishment, at the discretion of a court-martial.
“ART. 26. If any commissioned or non-commissioned officer commanding a guard shall knowingly or willingly suffer any person whatsoever to go forth to fight a duel, he shall be punished as a challenger; and all seconds, promoters, and carriers of challenges, in order to duels, shall be deemed principals, and be punished accordingly. And it shall be the duty of every officer commanding an army, regiment, company, post, or detachment, who is knowing to a challenge being given or accepted by any officer, non-commissioned officer, or soldier, under his command, or has reason to believe the same to be the case, immediately to arrest and bring to trial such offenders.
“ART. 27. All officers, of what condition so ever, have power to part and quell all quarrels, frays, and disorders, though the persons concerned should belong to another regiment, troop, or company; and either to order officers into arrest, or non-commissioned officers or soldiers into confinement, until their proper superior officers shall be acquainted therewith; and whosoever shall refuse to obey such officer (though of an inferior rank), or shall draw his sword upon him, shall be punished at the discretion of a general court-martial.
“ART. 28. Any officer or soldier who shall upbraid another for refusing a challenge, shall himself be punished as a challenger; and all officers and soldiers are hereby discharged from any disgrace or opinion of disadvantage which might arise from their having refused to accept of challenges, as they will only have acted in obedience to the laws, and done their duty as good soldiers who subject themselves to discipline.
“ART. 29. No sutler shall be permitted to sell any kind of liquors or victuals, or to keep their houses or shops open for the entertainment of soldiers after nine at night, or before the beating of the reveille, or upon Sundays, during divine service or sermon, on the penalty of being dismissed from all future sutling.
“ART. 30. All officers commanding in the field, forts, barracks, or garrisons of the United States, are hereby required to see that the persons permitted to sutler shall supply the soldiers with good and wholesome provisions, or other articles, at a reasonable price, as they shall be answerable for their neglect.
“ART. 32. Every officer commanding in quarters, garrisons, or on the march, shall keep good order, and, to the utmost of his power, redress all abuses or disorders which may be committed by any officer or soldier under his command; if, upon complaint made to him of officers or soldiers beating or otherwise ill-treating any person or disturbing fairs or markets, or committing any kind or riots, to the disquieting of the citizens of the United States, he, the said commander, who shall refuse or omit to see justice done to the offender or offenders, and reparation made to the party or parties injured, as far as part of the offender’s pay shall enable him or them, shall, upon proof thereof, be cashiered, or otherwise punished, as a general court-martial shall direct.
“ART. 33. When any commissioned officer or soldier shall be accused of a capital crime, or of having used violence, or committed any offence against the person or property of any citizen of any of the United States, such as is punishable by the known laws of the land, the commanding officer and officers of every regiment, troop, or company, to which the person or persons so accused shall belong, are hereby required, upon application duly made by, or in behalf of, the party or parties injured, to use their utmost endeavors to deliver over such accused person or persons to the civil magistrate, and likewise to be aiding and assisting to the officers of justice in apprehending and securing the person or persons so accused, in order to bring him or them to trial. If any commanding officer or officers shall willfully neglect, or shall refuse, upon the application aforesaid, to deliver over such accused person or persons to the civil magistrates, or to be aiding and assisting to the officers of justice in apprehending such person or persons, the officer or officers so offending shall be cashiered.
“ART. 35. If any inferior officer or soldier shall think himself wronged by his captain or other officer, he is to complain thereto to the commanding officer of the regiment, who is hereby required to summon a regimental court-martial, for the doing justice to the complainant; from which regimental court-martial either party may, if he thinks himself still aggrieved, appeal to a general court-martial. But if, upon a second hearing, the appeal shall appear vexatious and groundless, the person so appealing shall be punished at the discretion of the said court-martial.
“ART. 37. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier who shall be convicted at a regimental court-martial of having sold, or designedly, or through neglect, wasted the ammunition delivered out to him, to be employed in the service of the United States, shall be punished at the discretion of such court.
“ART. 38. Every non-commissioned officer or soldier who shall be convicted before a court-martial of having sold, lost, or spoiled, through neglect, his horse, arms, clothes, or accoutrements, shall undergo such weekly stoppages (not exceeding the half of his pay) as such court-martial shall judge sufficient, for repairing the loss or damage; and shall suffer confinement, or such other corporeal punishment as his crime shall deserve.
“ART. 39. Every officer who shall be convicted before a court-martial of having embezzled or misapplied any money with which he may have been entrusted, for the payment of the men under his command, or for enlisting men into the service, or for other purposes, if a commissioned officer, shall be cashiered, and compelled to refund the money; if a non-commissioned officer, shall be reduced to the ranks, be put under stoppages until the money be made good, and suffer such corporeal punishment as such court-martial shall direct.
“ART. 40. Every captain of a troop or company is charged with the arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, or other warlike stores belonging to the troop or company under his command, which he is to be accountable for to his colonel in case of their being lost, spoiled, or damaged, not by unavoidable accidents, or on actual service.
“ART. 41. All non-commissioned officers and soldiers who shall be found one mile from the camp without leave, in writing, from their commanding officer, shall suffer such punishment as shall be inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 42. No officer or soldier shall lie out of his quarters, garrison, or camp, without leave from his superior officer, upon penalty of being punished according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 43. Every non-commissioned officer and soldier shall retire to his quarters or tent at the beating of the retreat; in default of which he shall be punished according to the nature of his offence.
“ART. 44. No officer, non-commissioned officer, or soldier shall fail in repairing, at the time fixed, to the place of parade, of exercise, or other rendezvous appointed by his commanding officer, if not prevented by sickness or some other evident necessity, or shall go from the said place of rendezvous without leave from his commanding officer, before he shall be regularly dismissed or relieved, on the penalty of being punished, according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 45. Any commissioned officer who shall be found drunk on his guard, party, or other duty, shall be cashiered. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier so offending shall suffer such corporeal punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 46. Any sentinel who shall be found sleeping upon his post, or shall leave it before he shall be regularly relieved, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 47. No soldier belonging to any regiment, troop, or company shall hire another to do his duty for him, or be excused from duty but in cases of sickness, disability, or leave of absence; and every such soldier found guilty of hiring his duty, as also the party so hired to do another’s duty, shall be punished at the discretion of a regimental court-martial.
“ART. 48. And every non-commissioned officer conniving at such hiring of duty aforesaid, shall be reduced; and every commissioned officer knowing and allowing such ill practices in the service, shall be punished by the judgment of a general court-martial.
“ART. 50. Any officer or soldier who shall, without urgent necessity, or without the leave of his superior officer, quit his guard, platoon, or division, shall be punished according to the nature of his offence, by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 51. No officer or soldier shall do violence to any person who brings provisions or other necessaries to the camp, garrison, or quarters of the forces of the United States, employed in any parts out of the said States, upon pain of death, or such other punishment as a court-martial shall direct.
“ART. 52. Any officer or soldier who shall misbehave himself before the enemy, run away, or shamefully abandon any fort, post, or guard which he or they may be commanded to defend, or speak words inducing others to do the like, or shall cast away his arms and ammunition, or who shall quit his post or colors to plunder and pillage every such offender, being duly convicted thereof shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court-martial.
“ART. 53. Any person belonging to the armies of the United States who shall make known the watchword to any person who is not entitled to receive it according to the rules and discipline of war, or shall presume to give a parole or watchword different from what he received shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general court-martial.
“ART. 54. All officers and soldiers are to behave themselves orderly in quarters and on their march; and whoever shall commit any waste or spoil, either in walks of trees, parks, warrens, fish-ponds, houses, or gardens, cornfields enclosures of meadows, or shall maliciously destroy any property whatsoever belonging to the inhabitants of the United States, unless by order of the then commander-in-chief of the armies of the said States, shall (besides such penalties as they are liable to by law) be punished according to the nature and degree of the offence, by the judgment of a regimental or general court-martial.
“ART. 55. Whosoever, belonging to the armies of the United States in foreign parts, shall force a safeguard, shall suffer death.
“ART. 56. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with, or giving intelligence to, the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 58. All public stores taken in the enemy’s camp, towns, forts, or magazines, whether of artillery, ammunition, clothing, forage, or provisions, shall be secured for the service of the United States; for the neglect of which the commanding officer is to be answerable.
“ART. 59. If any commander of any garrison, fortress, or post shall be compelled, by the officers and soldiers under his command, to give up to the enemy, or to abandon it, the commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, or soldiers who shall be convicted of having so offended, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court-martial.
“ART. 60. All sutlers and retainers to the camp, and all persons whatsoever, serving with the armies of the United States in the field, though not enlisted soldiers, are to be subject to orders, according to the rules and discipline of war.
“ART. 67. No garrison or regimental court-martial shall have the power to try capital cases or commissioned officers; neither shall they inflict a fine exceeding one month’s pay, nor imprison, nor put to hard labor, any non-commissioned officer or soldier for a longer time than one month.
“ART. 70. When a prisoner, arraigned before a general court-martial, shall, from obstinacy and deliberate design, stand mute, or answer foreign to the purpose, the court may proceed to trial and judgment as if the prisoner had regularly pleaded not guilty.
“ART. 76. No person whatsoever shall use any menacing words, signs, or gestures, in presence of a court-martial or shall cause any disorder or riot, or disturb their proceedings, on the penalty of being punished at the discretion of the said court-martial.
“ART. 78. Non-commissioned officers and soldiers, charged with crimes, shall be confined until tried by court-martial, or released by proper authority.
“ART. 79. No officer or soldier who shall be put in arrest shall continue in confinement more than eight days; or until such time as a court-martial can be assembled.
“ART. 87.[‡‡‡‡] No person shall be sentenced to suffer death but by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of a general court-martial, nor except in the cases herein expressly mentioned; nor shall more then fifty lashes be inflicted on any offender of the discretion of a court-martial; and no officer, non-commissioned officer, soldier, or follower of the army, shall be tried a second time for the same offense.
“ART. 88. No person shall be liable to be tried and punished by a general court-martial for any offence which shall appear to have been committed more than two years before the issuing of the order for such trial, unless the person, by reason of having absented himself, or some other manifest impediment, shall not have been amenable to justice within that period.
“ART. 95. When any non-commissioned officer or soldier shall die, or be killed in the service of the United States, the then commanding officer of the troop or company shall, in the presence of two other commissioned officers, take an account of what effects he died possessed of, above his arms and accoutrements, and transmit the same to the Department of War, which said effects are to be accounted for and paid to the representatives of such deceased non-commissioned officer or soldier. And in case any of the officers, so authorized to take care of the effects of deceased officers and soldiers, should, before they have accounted to their representatives for the same, have occasion to leave the regiment or post, by preferment or otherwise, they shall, before they be permitted to quit the same, deposit in the hands of the commanding officer, or of the assistant military agent, all the effects of such deceased non-commissioned officers and soldiers in order that the same may be secured for, and paid to, their respective representatives.
“ART. 97. The officers and soldiers of any troops, whether militia or others, being mustered and in pay of the United States, shall, at all times and in all places, when joined or acting in conjunction with the regular forces of the United States, be governed by these rules and Articles of War, and shall be subject to be tried by courts-martial, in like manner with the officers and soldiers in the regular forces; save only that such courts-martial shall be composed entirely of militia officers.
“ART. 99. All crimes not capital, and all disorders and neglects which officers and soldiers may be guilty of to the prejudice of good order and military discipline, though not mentioned in the foregoing Articles of War, are to be taken cognizance of by a general or regimental court-martial, according to the nature and degree of the offence, and be punished at their discretion.
“ART. 101. The foregoing articles are to be read and published, once in every six months, to every garrison, regiment, troop, or company, mustered, or to be mustered, in the service of the United States, and are to be duly observed and obeyed by all officers and soldiers who are, or shall be, in said service.”
[APPROVED, April 10, 1806.]
PRINCIPLES OF FIRING.
653. TARGET practice will enable Soldiers to learn the use of their fire-arms, in the course of time; but, if they fully understand the principles of firing, their practice will be materially aided. The following is taken from the “Instructions for Field Artillery,” and is as applicable to small arms as to cannon.
“POINTING AND RANGES.
“To point a piece is to place it in such a position that the shot may reach the object it is intended to strike. To do this, the axis of the trunnions being horizontal, the line of metal, called also the natural line of sight, must be so directed as to pass through the object, and then the elevation given to the piece to throw the shot the required distance. The direction is given from the trail, and the elevation from the breech; the trail being traversed by a handspike, and the breech raised or depressed by an elevating screw.
“The axis of the piece coincides with that of the cylinder of the bore.
“The line of sight in pointing is the line of direction from the eye to the object. It lies in a vertical plane, passing through, or parallel to, the axis of the piece.
“The angle of sight is the angle which the line of sight makes with the axis of the piece.
“The natural line of sight is the straight line passing through the highest points of the base ring, and the swell of the muzzle, muzzle sight, or muzzle band.
“The natural angle of sight is the angle which the natural line of sight makes with the axis of the piece.
“The dispart of a piece is half the difference between the diameters of the base ring and swell of the muzzle, or the muzzle band. It is therefore the tangent of the natural angle of sight, to a radius equal to the distance from the highest point of the swell of the muzzle or muzzle band, to the plane passing through the rear of the base ring.
“By range is commonly meant the distance between the piece and the object which the ball is intended to strike; or, the first graze of the ball upon the horizontal plane on which the carriage stands. Point-blank range is the distance between the piece and the point-blank. Extreme range is the distance between the piece and the spot where the ball finally rests.
“Theory of pointing.—The point-blank is the second point of intersection of the trajectory, or curve described by the projectile in its flight with the line of sight. As the angle of sight is increased, the projectile is thrown farther above the line of sight, and the trajectory and point blank distance become more extended.
“The point-blank range increases with the velocity, the diameter, and the density of the ball. It is also affected by the inclination of the line of sight; but with the angles of elevation used in field service, this effect is too small to be taken into account.
“A piece is said to be aimed point-blank when the line of metal, which is the natural line of sight, is directed upon the object. This must be the case when the object is at point-blank distance. When at a greater distance, the pendulum-hausse, or the tangent scale, is raised upon the breech until the sight is at the height which the degree of elevation for the distance may require. An artificial line of sight and an artificial point-blank, are thus obtained, and the piece is aimed as before.
“The different lines, angles, &c. which an artilleryman has to take into account in pointing, will be best understood by the following figure:
“A B is the axis of the piece. B I F L is the trajectory, or curve described by the projectile in its flight. C D F is the natural line of sight. C D A is the natural angle of sight.
“The projectile, thrown in the direction of the axis A B D G, is acted upon by the force of gravity, and begins to fall at once below the line at the rate of 16½ feet for one second, 64⅓ for two, 144¾ for three, and so on in proportion to the time. It cuts the line of sight at B, a short distance from the muzzle of the piece and descending, again cuts it at the point F. This second point of intersection is the point-blank.
“Pendulum-hausse.—The instrument at present in most general use in pointing field-guns at objects beyond the natural point-blank, is called a pendulum-hausse, of which the component parts are denominated the scale, the slider, and the seat. The scale is made of sheet-brass: at the lower end is a brass bulb filled with lead. The slider is of thin brass, and is retained in any desired position on the scale by means of a brass set screw with a milled head. The scale is passed through a silt in a piece of steel, with which it is connected by a brass screw, forming a pivot on which the scale can vibrate laterally: this slit is made long enough to allow the scale to take a vertical position in any ordinary cases of inequality of the ground on which the wheels of the carriage may stand. The ends of this piece of steel form two journals, by means of which the scale is supported on the seat attached to the piece, and is at liberty to vibrate in the direction of the axis of the piece. The seat is of iron, and is fastened to the base of the breech by three screws, in such manner that the centres of the two journal notches shall be at a distance from the axis equal to the radius of the base ring.
“A muzzle sight of iron is screwed into the swell of the muzzle of guns, or into the middle of the muzzle ring of howitzers. The height of this sight is equal to the dispart of the piece, so that a line from the top of the muzzle sight to the pivot of the scale is parallel to the axis of the piece. Consequently the vertical plane of sight passing through the centre line of the scale and the top of the muzzle sight will be also parallel to the axis in any position of the piece: the scale will therefore always indicate correctly the angle which the line of sight makes with the axis. The seat for suspending the hausse upon the piece is adapted to each piece according to the varying inclination of the base of the breech to the axis. The hausse, the seat, and the muzzle sight, varying as they do, in their construction and arrangement, according to the configuration of the piece upon which they are intended to be used, are marked for the kind of piece to which they belong. The graduations on the scale are the tangents of each quarter of a degree, to a radius equal to the distance between the muzzle sight and the centre of the journal-notches, which are, in all cases, one inch in rear of the base ring.
“The hausse, when not in use, is carried by the gunner in a leather pouch, suspended from a shoulder-strap.
“PRACTICAL HINTS ON POINTING.
“As it is impossible to point a piece correctly without knowing the distance of the object, artillerymen should be frequently practiced in estimating distances by the eye alone, and verifying the estimate afterwards, either by pacing the distance, or by actual measurement with a tape-line or chain, until they acquire the habit of estimating them correctly.
“Shells are intended to burst in the object aimed at: spherical case shot are intended to burst from fifty to seventy-five yards short of it.
“Shell or spherical case firing, for long ranges, is less accurate than that of solid shot.
“At high elevations a solid shot will range farther than a shell or spherical case shot of the same diameter fired with an equal charge. But at low elevations, the shell or spherical case will have a greater initial velocity, and a longer range. If, however, the charges be proportioned to the weights of the projectiles, the solid shot will in all cases have the longest range.
“The velocity or range of a shot is not affected in any appreciable degree by checking the recoil of the carriage, by using a tight wad, or by different degrees of ramming.
“The principal causes which disturb the true flight of the projectile may be simply stated as follows:
“1st. If the wheels of the carriage are not upon the same horizontal plane, the projectile will deviate towards the lowest side of the carriage.
“2nd. If the direction of the wind is across the line of fire, deviations in the flight of the projectile will be occasioned and in proportion to the strength of the wind, the angle its direction makes with the line of fire, and the velocity of the projectile.
“3rd. If the centre of gravity of the projectile be not coincident with the centre of figure, the projectile will deviate towards the heaviest side, that is, in the same direction that the centre of gravity of the projectile, while resting in the piece, lies with regard to the centre of figure. Therefore, if a shot be placed in the piece so that its centre of gravity is to the right of the centre of the ball, the shot will deviate towards the right; and vice versa. If the centre of gravity be above the centre of figure, the range will be increased; if below, it will be diminished.
“Should an enemy’s cavalry be at a distance of 1000 yards from the battery it is about to charge, it will move over the first 400 yards at a walk, approaching to a gentle trot, in about four and a half minutes; it passes over the next 400 yards at a round trot, in a little more than two minutes; and over the last 200 yards at a gallop, in about half a minute, the passage over the whole distance requiring about seven minutes. This estimate will generally be very near the truth, as the ground is not always even, nor easy to move over. Many losses arise from the fire of the artillery and from accidents, and the forming and filling up of intervals create disorder; all of which contribute to retard the charge. Now, a piece can throw, with sufficient deliberation for pointing, two solid shot or three canisters per minute. Each piece of the battery, therefore, might fire nine rounds of solid shot upon the cavalry whilst it is passing over the first 400 yards; two rounds of solid shot and three of canister whilst it is passing over the next 400 yards; and two rounds of canister whilst it is passing over the last 200 yards—making a total from each gun of eleven round shot and five canisters. To this is added the fire of the supporting infantry.
“Care should be taken not to cease firing solid shot too soon, in order to commence with canister. If the effect of the latter be very great on hard, horizontal, or smooth ground, which is without obstruction of any kind, it is less on irregular and soft ground, or on that covered with brushwood; for, if the ground be not favorable, a large portion of the canister shot is intercepted. A solid shot is true to its direction, and, in ricochet, may hit the second line if it misses the first.
“Solid shot should be used from 350 yards upwards: the use of canister should begin at 350 yards, and the rapidity of the fire increase as the range diminishes. In emergencies, double charges of canister may be used at 150 or 160 yards, with a single cartridge.
“Spherical case ought not, as a general rule, to be used for a less range than 500 yards; and neither spherical case nor shells should be fired at rapidly advancing bodies, as, for instance, cavalry charging.
“The fire of spherical case and of shells on bodies of cavalry in line or column, and in position, is often very effective. To the destructive effects of the projectiles are added the confusion and disorder occasioned amongst the horses by the noise of their explosion; but neither shells nor spherical case should be fired so rapidly as solid shot.
“In case of necessity, solid shot may be fired from howitzers.”
654. In the use of small arms, greater accuracy is necessary in the estimation of distances; and no one can fire accurately without knowing the correct distance. Soldiers should practice estimating distances. The stadium, represented in “Target Practice,” is an instrument intended to measure distances. Every soldier can readily make his own stadium, that will answer the purpose, by using a small stick of hard wood, or bone, or even his screw-driver, and graduating it for the purpose. The following diagram will explain the principle:
655. A is the eye, B is the hand extended to the full length of the arm, and holding the instrument to be graduated, C is a man of medium height. Place the man first at fifty yards, and measure his height on the stick B, and mark it; then place him at one hundred yards, and another mark will be obtained: and so on for the principal distances. Each new position will give a new mark on the scale, and the height of the man will measure smaller every time he is removed farther away. The arm must always be extended to the full length, and the stick must always be used to measure the height of a man, or some object known to be about the same height.
656. In estimating distances by the difference in appearance of the same object at different distances, no fixed rules can be laid down, as the eyesight differs materially in different persons. The only way is for each individual to fix his own rules by closely observing the appearance of the same object at known distances. Thus, at one distance, he is able to recognize a man’s face and all the details of his dress; a little farther, and he is only able to recognize certain prominent features; still farther, he will be able to distinguish a human figure, but is unable to say whether it is male or female. Practice will soon enable one to judge very correctly, by the various changes in the appearance of the human form, how far it is away.
657. The color of the objects, the condition of the atmosphere, and the formation of the ground affect the estimate of distances very materially. Bright, positive colors seem closer, and neutral colors more distant; green fields will, therefore, appear closer than ploughed fields. In clear weather, with the sun behind the viewer, objects appear nearer than in dark, cloudy weather, at twilight, by the light of the moon, or dusty or foggy weather. Where the ground is broken, the objects appear larger than on a level plain, and large objects of one color seem to diminish the distance.
658. Tall objects seem closer than lower ones looking down, objects seem shorter than when looking up. A good eye of ordinary capacity will distinguish the shingles on a house at two hundred and fifty to three hundred yards, in clear weather.
At six hundred to eight hundred yards, the crossbars of the windows are still visible.
At twelve hundred to fifteen hundred yards, single beams, individual trees, guide-posts, &c. are still seen.
At two thousand five hundred to three thousand yards, large trees are still visible.
At four thousand to five thousand yards, the chimneys are still in sight on the housetops.
At two to three miles, ordinary dwelling-houses are recognized; and churches and windmills are recognizable from six to nine miles.
659. At two thousand yards, a line of infantry looks like a black line, with a bright line over it; cavalry seems a thicker line, with the upper edge broken or notched. The movements can be recognized.
At twelve hundred to fifteen hundred yards, cavalry can be distinguished readily from infantry; the ranks of the latter are visible at twelve hundreds yards.
At one thousand yards, the line of the heads and the motions of the legs of men of the infantry are visible, and the horses’ heads of cavalry can be distinguished.
At eight hundred yards, the upper outline of the men are visible of infantry, and, if cavalry, you can distinguish the motions of the horses’ legs.
At six hundred yards, men and horses are distinctly visible, but colors are not distinguishable, except white; the kind of head-dress can be recognized.
At four hundred yards, the ornaments are visible on the head-dress, and colors are distinguishable.
At two hundred yards, the men’s heads are distinctly visible.
At one hundred and fifty to two hundred yards, you can see the line of the men’s eyes.
At eighty yards, the men’s eyes are distinct points.
At twenty-five to thirty yards, you can see the white of the eye.
660. Sound travels at the rate of one thousand and eighty-five feet per second, and the difference of time between the flash and the report of a gun will give the distance. On a still night, troops moving at a route step can be heard from five to six hundred yards; when keeping step, from seven hundred and fifty to eight hundred yards. A troop of horse, at a walk, seven hundred to eight hundred yards; at a gallop or trot, one thousand yards. In stormy weather, the human voice cannot be heard over eighty yards.
661. In firing, men should drop the muzzle of the musket below the object and obtain the correct sight by raising it again. Men are very liable to overshoot firing down hill, and are much more liable to hit firing up hill. Where the hill is steeper than forty-five degrees, men will overshoot, even if they aim at the feet, if the distance is one hundred yards or more.
662. IN battle, men are apt to lose their self possession, and do very absurd things. They rarely take good aim, unless they have been in battles before. Raw troops are liable to panics, and become completely uncontrollable; and this will happen sometimes to veterans.
663. Soldiers are liable to think, when the tide of battle goes against them in that portion of the field where they are engaged, that the whole army has been beaten, and they are liable to give up or run away; and stragglers to the rear frequently report a disastrous defeat, where a victory has been gained. Such misconceptions are subsequently a great reproach to them, and should, therefore, be guarded against as much as possible; and surrender or retreat should not be thought of until there is no longer any doubt about the result.
[‡‡‡‡] So much of these rules and articles as authorized the infliction of corporeal punishment by stripes or lashes, was specially repealed by Act of 16th May, 1812. By Act of 2nd March, 1833, the repealing act was repealed, so far as it applied to the crime of desertion, which, of course, revived the punishment by lashes for that offence, flogging was totally abolished by Sec. 3 of Chap. 49, August 5, 1861.
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Transcribed by Scott Gutzke, 2006.
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